名词 专有名词 不可数名词
情况 构成方法 读音 例词
一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps
浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars
以s, sh, ch, x等结尾 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches
以ce, se, ze,等结尾 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses
以辅音字母+y结尾 变y 为i再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies
1） 以y结尾的专有名词，或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时，直接加s变复数。例如：
two Marys the Henrys
2） 以o 结尾的名词，变复数时：
a. 加s，如： photo---photos piano---pianos
b. 加es，如：potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes
c. 上述a和b两种方法均可，如zero---zeros / zeroes。
3） 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时：
a. 加s，如： belief---beliefs roof---roofs
b. 去f,fe 加ves，如：half---halves
knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves
wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves；
c. 上述a和b两种方法均可，如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。
1） child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth
mouse---mice man---men woman---women
注意：由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词，其复数形式也是 -men 和-women，如an Englishman，two Englishmen。但German不是合成词，故复数形式为Germans；Bowman是姓，其复数是the Bowmans。
2） 单复同形，如deer，sheep，fish，Chinese，Japanese ，li，jin，yuan，two li，three mu，four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外，美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如：a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
people police cattle 等本身就是复数，不能说 a people，a police，a cattle，但可以说a person，a policeman，a head of cattle, the English，the British，the French，the Chinese，the Japanese，the Swiss 等名词，表示国民总称时，作复数用，如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
b. news 为不可数名词。
c. the United States，the United Nations 应视为单数。
The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。
“The Arabian Nights” is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。
5） 表示由两部分构成的东西，如：glasses （眼镜） trousers, clothes等，若表达具体数目，要借助数量词 pair（对，双）; suit（套）; a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。
比较：Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 （不可数）
These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 （可数）
This factory produces steel. （不可数）
We need various steels. （可数）
Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量，如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。
sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室
talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系
2） man, woman, gentleman等作定语时，其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如：
men workers women teachers gentlemen officials
goods train （货车） arms produce 武器生产
customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷
two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 a ten-mile walk 十英里路
two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
国籍 总称（谓语用复数） 单数 复数
中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese
瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss
澳大利亚人 the Australians an Australian two Australians
俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians
意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians
希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks
法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen
日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese
美国人 the Americans an American two Americans
印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians
加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians
德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans
英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen
瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes
英语中有些名词可以加“'s”来表示所有关系，带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格，如：a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下：
1） 单数名词词尾加“'s”，复数名词词尾没有s，也要加“'s”，如the boy's bag 男孩的书包，men's room 男厕所。
2） 若名词已有复数词尾-s ，只加“ ' ”，如：the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
3） 凡不能加“'s”的名词，都可以用“名词+of +名词”的结构来表示所有关系，如：the title of the song 歌的名字。
4） 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时，名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词，如：the barber's 理发店。
John's and Mary's rooms（两间） John and Mary's room（一间）
6） 复合名词或短语，'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如：a month or two's absence
1. He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.
a． little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages
2. Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.
a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes
3. The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.
a.many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation
4. Painting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.
a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil
5. In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.
a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many
6. The large houses are being painted, but ______.
a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense
7. The room was small and contained far too ______.
a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures
b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures
8. Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.
a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers
9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.
a great many…many c. much…a great deal
b. a great deal of…much d. many…a great many
10. She didn’t know _____ he had been given.
a. how many information c. how many informations
b. the number of information d. how much information
11. He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.
a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm
b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm
12. All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
a. women doctors c. woman doctors
b. women doctor d. woman doctor
13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.
a. growns-ups c. growns-up
b. grown-up d. grown-ups
14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
a. stander-by c. standers-by
b. stander-bys d. standers-bys
15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.
a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war
b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war
16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.
a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels
17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.
a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress
18.All the people at the conference are ______.
a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher
b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers
19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.
a. some property c. properties
b. some properties d. property
20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.
a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are
21.He has written several books, but his last works _____ well known among his friends.
a. have b. have been c. is d. are
22.After he checked up my ______ heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days.
a. father-in-law’s c. father’s-in-law
b. father-in-law d. father’s-in-law’s
23.He told me _____ would come to his birthday party.
a. many Jack friends c. many Jack’s friend
b. Jack’s many friends d. many friends of Jack’s
24.I had my hair cut at the _____ around the corner.
a.barber b. barbers c. barber’s d. barbers’
25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at ______.
a. Peter and Helen’s c. Peter and Helen
b. Peter and Helens d. Peter’s and Helen’s
26.______ receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun’s energy.
a. The earth’s surface c. The surface of earth
b. The surface earth d. The earth surface
27.Numerous materials are available to ______.
a. today of designers c. today’s of designers
b. today’s designers d. today designers
28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don’t you know he is an old friend of ______?
a. my brother b. my brothers c. my brother’s d. my brother’s friend
29.______ is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know.
a. This John’s old friend c. That’s Jahn’s old friend
b. This old friend of John d. This old friend of John’s
30.______ is too much for a little boy to carry.
a.A bike’s weight c. The weight of a bike
b.The weights of a bike d. Bile’s weight
31.Generally there are ______ television programs for children on Saturday.
a.little b. much c. a large number of d. a large amount of
32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were ______ left.
a.only few seats b. a very few seats c. only a few seats d. so a few seats
33.______ travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope.
a. A little mail b. A piece of mail c. A mail d. A small mail
34.The Department purchased ______ to improve the working conditions there.
a. a new equipment c. new equipments
b. a new piece of equipment d. new pieces of equipments
35.The boy tried hard but there has been ______ in his work.
a.little improvement c. many improvements
b. a little improvement d. few improvements
36.Today’s modern TV cameras require ______ light as compared with the earlier models.
a. only a few b. only few c. only a little d. only little
37.No country can afford to neglect ______.
a.an education b. educations c. education d. the education
38.Please write the answers to the questions at the end of ______.
a. eighth chapter b. chapter eight c. eight chapter d. chapter the eight
39.______ is only surpassed by that of monkeys’ and apes’.
a.The intelligent dog c. The intelligence of dogs
b.The dogs whose intelligence d. The dogs being intelligent
40.All ______ must take the graduate Management Admission Test.
a. business student b. business’s students c. business students d. business’s student
41.______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself.
a.Three minutes call c. A three-minutes call
b.Three-minute call d. A three-minute call
42.The ______ about nuclear energy revolves around the waste problem.
a.public’s chief concern c. chief public concern
b.public chief concern d. chief concern of public’s
43.______ the first and largest ethnic group to work on the construction of the transcontinental railroad.
a. Chinese were b. The Chinese was c. Chinese was d. The Chinese were
44.______ can get a better view of the game than the participants.
a.Looker-on b. Lookers-on c. Looker-ons c. Lookers-ons
45.A group of spectators was dispersed by the police who ______ at the scene of the accidents within minutes.
a. were b. have been c. was d. has been
46.Our livestock ______ not as numerous as they used to be.
a.is b. are c. be d. been
47.One of the most surprising things is that ______ may come from petroleum.
a. much of tomorrow food c. many of tomorrow’s food
b. much of the food of tomorrow d. much of tomorrow’s food
48.Scott is an orphan but he received ______.
a.very good education c. a very good education
b.very good educations d. many good educations
49.After several day’s hardworking, we have made ______ on the design.
a. much improvement c. many improvement
b. several improvements d. some improvement
50.The boy was very happy that his mother bought him a new pair of shoes at a ______ yesterday.
a.shoes shop b. shoe shop c. shoes’s shop d. shoe’s
51.Eggs, though nourishing, have ______ of fat content.
a.large number b. a large number c. a high amount d. the high amount
52.He has done some ______ on that subject from various angles over the past ten years.
a.research b. a research c. researches d. the researches
53.Recently, he has lost all his ______.
a.wage and saving at card c. wages and saving at card
b.wages and savings at card d. wages and savings at cards
54.The country’s wealth comes chiefly from its many ______.
a.herd of cattle b. heard of cattles c. herds of cattle d. herds of cattles
55.In Britain the ______ are all painted red.
a.letter boxes b. letters box c. letters boxes d. letters’s box
56.Ten years had passed. I found she had ______.
a.a little white hair c. a few white hair
b.some white hair d. much white hair
57.All his ______ far from satisfaction
a. conduct is b. conduct are c. conducts is d. conducts will be
58.Although the town had been attacked by the storm several times, ______ was done.
a. a few damages b. few damages c. little damage d. a little damage
59.He was ______ what to do.
a. at his wit end b. at his wits end c. at his wit’s end d. at his wits’s end
60.Would you like to have a cup of tea and ______ with me?
a two toasts b. two pieces of toast c. two piece of toasts d. tow pieces of toasts
61.Accurate ______ covering the fact are not obtainable.
a. datum b. datums c. data d. datas
62.On Monday morning some teachers exchanged a few ______.
a. how-are-yous c. how-are-you’s
b. of how-are-you’s d. of how are you
63.Albert said he met the girl ______
a. at his uncle’s Smith room c. at his uncle Smith’s room
b. at Smith’s his uncle’s room d. at the room of his uncle’s Smith’s
64.It is four months since I last saw Keats ______.
a. at Mrt Smith’s ,the book seller c. at my aunt’s, a book seller
b. at my aunt’s, Mrs Palmer’s d. at Mrs Palmer’s, the book seller’s
65.This room is ______.
a. the editor’s-in-chief’s office c. the editor-in-chief’s office
b. the editor-in-chief office d. the editor’s-in-chief office
66.My old classmate, Comrade Sun ,works at ______.
a. a teacher college c. a teacher’s college
b. a teachers’s college d. a college of a teacher’s
67.The policemen put the criminal ______.
a. in a iron b. into a iron c. in irons d. into a pair of iron
68.Our teacher gave me ______.
a. an advice b. the advice c. many advice d. much advice
69.My mother cut the cloth with ______ scissors.
a. a b. two c. a couple of d. a pair of
70.My house is within ______ from the railway station.
a. a stone’s throw b. a throw of a stone c. stone’s throw d. the stone’s throw
1. She is such an irritating woman, I don’t know how you can ______ her.
a. put up b. stand up to c. stand with d. put up with
2. To get my traveler’s check I had to ______ a special check to the bank for the total amount.
a. make for b. make out c. make off d. make up
3. Little boys are easily ______.
a. taken in b. taken away c. taken out d. taken over
4. The company is going to hand ______ the free samples tomorrow.
a. up b. out c. on d. down
5. It was purely ______ chance that the mistake was discovered.
a. in b. for c. by d. from
6. The magician picked several persons ______ from the audience and asked them to help him with the performance.
a. by accident b. on occasion c. on average d. at random
7. I left for the office earlier than usual this morning ______ traffic jam.
a. in case of b. in line with c. for the sake of d. at the risk of
8. Some areas, _______ their severe weather conditions, are hardly populated.
a. but for b. in spite of c. due to d. with regard to
9. Visitors are asked to comply ______ the regulations.
a. at b. in c. with d. on
10. He ______ so much work that he couldn’t really do it efficiently.
a. put on b. took on c. brought on d. turned on
11.In order to save time, I ______ my shopping to once a week.
a. cut off b. cut out c. cut up d. cut down
12.The idea has ______ that science cannot be wrong.
a. piled up b. picked up c. grown up d. put up
13.he did everything he could to prevent if from ______ into fighting.
a. breaking off b. breaking up c. breaking out d. breaking of
14.The construction of the new building will cost ______ 1,000,000 dollars, and it’s not easy to get so much money.
a. at last b. at most c. at least d. at large
15.The thief ran away as fast as he could ______ the policeman.
a. in sight b. within the sight of c. within sight d. at the sight of
16.For too long, European can makers have fought to ______ old ways and old privileges.
a. hang on to b. have access to c. refer to d. see to
17.Whoever ______ a full night’s sleep will be more than rewarded in heightened productivity, creativity and focus.
a. invests at b. invests in c. invests by d. invests with
18.Prior ______ his departure, he wrote a letter to his mother.
a. of b. from c. to d. in
19.The company is very famous ______ the high quality of its products.
a. in b. for c. by d. with
20.Once he was given a chance to improve his position in the firm, he seized it ______ both hands and is now on his way to the top.
a. on b. at c. in d. with
21.These misfortunes almost deprived him ______ his future career.
a. with b. of c. from d. beyond
22.I don’t ______ the expense; I want the party to be a real success.
a. care for b. care about c. be in care of d. take care of
23.We must get the roof mended before the wet weather sets ______.
a. about b. on c. up d. in
24.The car pulled ______ beside me and the driver asked me to way to the Great Wall.
a. down b. off c. up d. out
25.After the war, many warships were laid ______ as they were not needed any longer.
a. up b. aside c. down d. over
26.When the rebellion died ______ things quickly returned to normal.
a. out b. away c. down d. through
27.I’ll pick you ______ at your college gate and take you straight to the station.
a. on b. off c. out d. up
28.Will you please see ______ our luggage when I am away?
a. to b. in c. with d. for
29.______ they reached the small village before dusk.
a. Towards the end b. By the end c. In the end d. At the end
30.Mary has left the book on the table ______ purpose so that you can read it.
a. with b. on c. in d. out of
31.That noise is getting louder because the engineers are ______ the engine to see if the plane is ready to fly.
a. doing with b. running up c. turning in d. trying for
32.The government is looking ______ new methods of raising money without increasing taxes.
a. down on b. upon c. out for d. around
33.Man is superior to the animals ______ he sues language to convey his thoughts.
a. and that b. in that c. so that d. in order that
34.Not long ago, a person who I know every well was ______ an accident.
a. related to b. included in c. involved in d. subject to
35.I ______ to him for the error.
a. excused b. pardoned c. forgave d. apologized
36.Though we have no interests ______ common, we are good friends.
a. on b. in c. for d. at
37.The purse has returned to the original owner ______.
a. in a long time b. in a long run c. in no time d. at no time
38.We can’t hope to catch up with that car ______ us.
a. in advance of b. in the front of c. at the frontier of d. ahead of
39.Some animals will modify their behavior to ______ their environment.
a. adapt to b. adopt to c. suit to d. conform to
40.Don't ______ going abroad this summer, we may not have enough money.
a. count on b. come on c. attend upon d. frown upon
41.Don’t suspect your daughter ______ dishonesty.
a. of b. for c. with d. to
42.At the head of the valley we turned right and ______ the summit.
a. set up b. took up c. made for d. went for
43.Her type of women can ______ life much more easily.
a. cope with b. take advantage of c. take care of d. look after
44.The manager accused one of the hotel servants ______ stealing the money.
a. for b. with c. of d. about
45.It is difficult to _____ the implication between the lines.
a. get to b. get into c. get over d. get at
46.While living there, she ______ the local accent.
a. picked on b. picked at c. picked up d. picked out
47.We adopted the new method _____ raising our efficiency.
a. in the event of b. on account of c. with a view of d. with regard to
48.______ the light of what you have told me, I will say that it is he who came here yesterday.
a. By b. In c. Of d. Under
49.They will place China in the front ranks of countries of the world ______ the output of major industrial products.
a. in support of b. in connection with c. in terms of d. by means of
50.When they had finished playing, the children were made to ______ all the toys they had taken out.
a. put off b. put away c. put up d. put out
51.He failed to supply the facts relevant ______ the case in question.
a. for b. with c. of d. to
52.In Britain, and on the Continent too, the Japanese are viewed _______ a threat to domestic industries.
a. like b. as c. with d. for
53.When Jack was eighteen he ______ going around with a strange set of people and staying out very late.
a. took up b. took for c. took to d. took on
54.While in London, we paid a visit to the hospital founded ______ the nurse Florence Nightingale.
a. in line with b. in favor of c. in place d. in honor of
55.A poor man has to ______ many thing which a rich man regards as almost necessaries in life.
a. go through b. go without c. go over d. go about
56.Digital computers are practical ______ their high speed of operation.
a. instead of b. because of c. regardless of d. in spite of
57._____ the many hours of study that he devoted to the subject, he still found the subject matter difficult.
a. After b. Due to c. Despite d. As for
58.The early part of the concert ______ comparatively satisfactorily.
a. went after b. went down c. went off d. went up
59.Mary is _______ her face ready for the party.
a. clearing up b. holding up c. keeping up d. making up
60. _______ a prolonged spell of fine weather, they were able to complete the film within the month.
a. As to b. Thanks to c. In relation to d. With respect to
61.One day people will be able to go to the moon _____ holiday.
a. on b. during c. for d. in
62.How did it come _____ that you made a lot of mistakes in your homework?
a. about b. after c. with d. to
63.Whatever the rule is, you may be sure he will keep _____ it.
a. on b. in c. off d. to
64.In one firm alone over three hundred people were laid _____ during the last month.
a. in b. out c. on d. off
65.The safety of shops ______ sea depends much on the warnings given by lighthouses.
a. in b. across c. on d. at
66.The mass of an object is multiplied by the speed of light squared, _____ other words , the speed of light is multiplied by itself.
a. by b. for c. in d. with
67.The new system encourages companies to compete with each other ______ equal terms.
a. on b. in c. with d. for
68.You should stick _____ the point in debate.
a. to b. at c. in d. for
69.Tom has been sad recently, for his plan to go to college _____ at the last moment.
a. fell out b. fell behind c. fell in d. fell through
70.David likes country life and has decided to ______ farming.
a. go in for b. go into c. go through d. go after
71.The police haven’t caught the murder alive yet, but they are convinced that the really important facts of the case will soon ________ .
a. come into force b. come into contact c. come into light d. come down to earth
72.The teacher expects us to do all the exercises, to study the spelling list and to get our paper ______ time.
a. in b. on c. at d. by
73.Having been told bad weather was on the way, the climbers decided to ______ their attempt on Mount Tai until the following week.
a. give up b. deny to c. put off d. refuse to
74.Bill did not hear the telephone because he was completely ______ his reading.
a. absorbed for b. absorbed by c. absorbed on d. absorbed in
75.Unwanted tickets can be given ______ at the theatre office window up to half an hour before the performance.
a. in b. out c. off d. over
76.Science was ______ regarded as a part of philosophy.
a. at time b. at all time c. at a time d. at one time
77.The newly designed machines are high ______ quality.
a. on b. in c. for d. with
78.Some quite artistic, yet inexpensive fabrics are now being _____ from British mills.
a. turned over b. turned out c. turned up d. turned off
79.The mother scolded the boy ______ not cleaning up his room.
a. to b. with c. at d. for
80.______ my car is being made ready for a long journey.
a. In the moment b. For the moment c. At the moment d. By the moment
81.I’m bad ______ remembering faces.
a. at b. in c. with d. on
82.Oil drilling in that area has now stopped because the company has ______ money.
a. come out of b. come off c. run out of d. run down
83.The doctor was always ______ the poor and the sick, often giving them free medical services.
a. reminded of b. absorbed in c. tended by d. concerned about
84.The company will send a representative to ______ their business in that region.
a. attend to b. attempt at c. associate with d. approve of
85.Milk is ______ memories of home and mother so people away from home drink more milk.
a. bound to b. kept to c. referred to d. tied to
86.Despite the traffic lights ahead, the car continued ______ full speed.
a. with b. in on d. at
87.Something strange seems to be _____ me since I have been taking this drug.
a. running into b. coming across c. happening to d. falling on
88.The shopkeeper was ______ inside his own shop, and all the day’s money was stolen.
a. held over b. held up c. held out d. held off
89.Earth-like planets are extremely common in the Universe, ______ the latest computer simulation of the formation of the Solar System.
a. according to b. in addition to c. in regard to d. thanks to
90.In Brazil, spending on science and technology ______ just 0.6 percent of gross national product.
a. makes for b. makes up for c. accounts for d. stands for
91.______, wherever he lives, a man belongs to some society.
a. For short b. In short c. Of short d. On short
92.A man who could ______ such treatment was a man of remarkable physical courage and moral strength.
a. bear upon b. insist on c. stand up to d. persist in
93.Is his action consistent ______ his principles?
a. with b. in c. of d. by
94.He is by far the best player ______ the team.
a. for b. on c. in d. to
95.A foreign firm has bought more than half of the shares in his company and ______.
a. got over it b. overtaken it c. taken it over d. overcome it
96.After a heated bargaining they agreed ______ the price for the car.
a. to b. with c. on d. in
97._______ all the difficulties and discomforts, they went on working at the design.
a. Because of b. In proportion with c. As a result of d. In spite of
98.all questions left ______ by history must be settled one by one.
a. alone b. off c. out d. over
99.It is just three o’clock p.m. The plane just _____ five minutes ago.
a. took off b. took up c. took out d. took in
100.The government warned the people living in the forest to be ______ fire.
a. with regard to b. on guard c. on guard against d. in regard to
101.During sleep blood pressure is normally ______ its lowest.
a. in b. for c. at d. by
102.The parents and the children will have to leave the country ______ good.
a. with c. over c. on d. for
103.Neither their parents nor their friends have approved ______ their marriage yet.
a. for b. of c. to d. with
104.Classroom testing, if well done, most certainly ______ a stimulus to study and real learning.
a. acts for b. acts on c. acts as d. acts to
105.In the experiment we kept a watchful eye ______ the developments and recorded every detail.
a. in b. at c. for d. on
106.The French pianist who had been praised very highly ______ to be a great disappointment.
a. turned up b. turned in c. turned out d. turned down
107.In the advanced course students must take performance tests ______ monthly intervals.
a. in b. over c. at d. between
108.We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are ______.
a. out of work b. out of reach c. out of practice d. out of stock
109.In the United States professors have many other duties ______ teaching, such as administrative or research work.
a. besides b. except c. but d. with
110.he attempted ______ to set up a company of his own.
a. with vain b. on vain c. in vain d. of vain
111.On hearing the news that her father died, she ______ tears.
a. burst out b. burst in c. burst into d. burst forth
112.She was annoyed at his comment, thinking that he visitor _____ her.
a. looked down b. looked highly of c. looked low at d. looked down upon
113.______ comparison to my boyhood, my undergraduate years in Oklahoma were paradise.
a. In b. With c. By d. For
114.The United States is a major consumer of coffee, yet it does not have the climate to grow any ______ its own.
a. on b. for c. of d. to
115.The accounts have always been handled ______ the banks policies.
a. in accordance with c. in connection with
c. in contrast with d. in line with
116.His inability to learn foreign languages was an obstacle ______ his career.
a. of b. to c. for d. as
117.The purpose of the official inquiry is to ______ the true facts leading to the loss of the ship at sea.
a. come at b. come for c. come into d. come over
118.Business picked up in the stores during December, but ______ again after Christmas.
a. dropped off b. dropped out c. dropped over d. dropped on
119.Many words associated with life in the West are Spanish ______ origin.
a. on b. in c. at d. from
120.The custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbors on New Year’s Day is one the Old World traditions that has ______ a new form in the United States.
a. taken up b. taken on c. taken over d. taken off
121.Some workers fear the loss of social identity that can ______ not having a job.
a. result in b. result from c. bring up d. bring on
122.Most of the leading food shops have promised to ______ prices until after the new year.
a. keep off b. keep down c. keep out d. keep back
123.______ classical music, which follows formal European traditions, jazz is a spontaneous and free form.
a. In comparison with b. In connection with c. In contrast to d. In regard to
124.Alice ______ when a crowd from a train rushed through the gate.
a. looked after b. looked in c. looked over d. looked up
125.The news of important events is broadcast often _______ over television.
a. on the average b. on the contrary c. on the spot d. on the whole
1 D 15 B 29 D 43 D 57 A
2 D 16 B 30 B 44 B 58 C
3 C 17 B 31 C 45 A 59 D
4 C 18 C 32 C 46 B 60 B
5 A 19 C 33 B 47 D 61 C
6 C 20 B 34 C 48 B 62 B
7 A 21 C 35 A 49 C 63 B
8 D 22 A 36 C 50 B 64 D
9 C 23 D 37 C 51 C 65 B
10 D 24 C 38 B 52 A 66 C
11 C 25 A 39 B 53 D 67 C
12 A 26 A 40 C 54 C 68 D
13 D 27 C 41 D 55 A 69 D
14 B 28 C 42 A 56 D 70 A
1 D 19 B 37 C 55 B 73 C 91 B 109 A
2 B 20 D 38 D 56 B 74 D 92 C 110 C
3 A 21 B 39 A 57 C 75 A 93 A 111 C
4 B 22 B 40 A 58 C 76 D 94 B 112 D
5 C 23 D 41 A 59 D 77 B 95 C 113 A
6 D 24 C 42 C 60 B 78 B 96 C 114 C
7 A 25 A 43 A 61 A 79 D 97 D 115 A
8 C 26 C 44 C 62 A 80 C 98 D 116 B
9 C 27 D 45 D 63 D 81 A 99 A 117 A
10 B 28 A 46 C 64 D 82 C 100 C 118 A
11 D 29 C 47 D 65 D 83 D 101 C 119 B
12 C 30 B 48 B 66 C 84 A 102 D 120 B
13 C 31 B 49 C 67 A 85 D 103 B 121 A
14 C 32 C 50 B 68 A 86 D 104 C 122 B
15 D 33 B 51 D 69 D 87 C 105 D 123 C
16 A 34 C 52 B 70 A 88 B 106 C 124 D
17 B 35 D 53 C 71 C 89 A 107 C 125 D
18 C 36 B 54 D 72 B 90 C 108 D 126
不定冠词a （an）与数词one 同源，是“一个”的意思。a用于辅音音素前，一般读作[e]，而an则用于元音音素前，一般读做[en]。
1） 表示“一个”，意为one；指某人或某物，意为a certain。例如：
A Mr. Ling is waiting for you. 有位姓凌的先生在等你。
A knife is a tool for cutting with. 刀是切割的工具。
Mr. Smith is an engineer. 史密斯先生是工程师。
3） 组成词组或成语，如a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try /keep an eye on / all of a sudden等。
Take the medicine. 把药吃了。
He bought a house. I've been to the house. 他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。
3）指世上独一物二的事物，如the sun， the sky， the moon， the earth等。
4）与单数名词连用表示一类事物，如the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸；或与形容词或分词连用，表示一类人：the rich 富人; the living 生者。
Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪？我住在二层。
That's the very thing I've been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。
They are the teachers of this school.（指全体教师）
They are teachers of this school. （指部分教师）
She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。
the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国
the United States 美国
She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。
the Greens 格林一家人 （或格林夫妇）
in the day, in the morning （afternoon，evening）, the day after tomorrow
the day before yesterday, the next morning,
in the sky （water，field，country）
in the dark, in the rain, in the distance,
in the middle （of）, in the end,
on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre
They are teachers. 他们是教师。
Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。
Man cannot live without water. 离开水人就无法生存。
We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。
The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。
7）在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前，不加冠词，如have breakfast，play chess。
I can't write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔，我就写不了字。
9）当by 与火车等交通工具连用，表示一种方式时，中间无冠词，如by bus，by train。
go to hospital 去医院看病
go to the hospital 去医院 （并不是去看病，而是有其他目的）
b. 序数词作副词。例如：He came first in the race. 他跑步得了第一。
c. 在固定词组中，如at（the）first, first of all, from first to last等。
He raises a black and a white cat. 他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。
The black and the white cats are hers. 这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。
He raises a black and white cat. 他养了一只花猫。
I have never seen such an animal. 我从来没见过这样的动物。
Many a man is fit for the job. 许多人适合这岗位。
b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时，不定冠词应放在形容词之后。例如：
It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. 我从未这么高兴过。
So short a time 如此短的时间
Too long a distance 距离太远了
c. quite，rather与单数名词连用，冠词放在其后。但当rather，quite 前仍有形容词，不定冠词放其前后均可，如：rather a cold day/a rather cold day。
d. 在as，though 引导的让步状语从句中，当表语为形容词修饰的名词时，不定冠词放形容词后。例如：Brave a man though he is，he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢，可见到蛇还是发抖。
定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前，但放在all， both，double，half，twice，three times等词之后，名词之前。例如：All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。
1）基数词一般可写成如345或three hundred and forty-five。
a. 与of 短语连用，表示概数，不能与具体数目连用，如scores of people 指许多人；
They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了。
d. 表示“年代”，用 in +the +数词复数。
e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里，如Three fives is（are）fifteen。
序数词的缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st等。
a. 主语+谓语+倍数（或分数）+ as + adj. + as。例如
I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。
b. 主语+谓语+倍数（分数）+ the size （amount，length…） of…。例如：
The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。
c. 主语+谓语+倍数（分数）+ 形容词（副词）比较级+ than…。例如：
The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。
The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了4倍。
1/3 one-third； 3/37 three and three-sevenths.
1.When Linda was a child, her mother always let her have ______ bed.
a. the breakfast in b. the breakfast in the c. breakfast in d. breakfast in the
2.He has promised to give up ______ hundreds of times.
a. a tobacco b. tobacco c. the tobacco d. tobaccos
3.______ usually go to church every Sunday.
a. The Brown b. A Brown c. Browns d. The Browns
4.The train is running fifty miles ______.
a. an hour b. one hour c. the hour d. a hour
5.He can play almost every kind of music instrument but he is good ______.
a. at the flute b. at flute c. at a flute d. at that flute
6.The investigators found that more should be done for ______ in India.
a. those poor b. a poor c. poor d. the poor
7.You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday.
a. wonderful time b. a wonderful time c. the wonderful time d. some wonderful time
8.The city assigned a policeman to the school crossing because ______ traffic there was so heavy.
a a b. an c. the d. one
9.A new teacher was sent to the village in place of ______ one who had retired.
a. a b. the c. an d. its
10.Virtue and vice are before you;______ leads you to happiness,______ to misery.
a. the former…latter b. a former…a latter
c. the former…the latter d. former…latter
11.The children in the kinder-garden soon took ______ to their teachers.
a. quite fancy b. a quite fancy c. quite a fancy d. the quite fancy
12.______ tend to bemoan the lack of character in the young generation.
a. The old b. Old c. Elderly d. Older
13.A man suffering from a chock should be given ______.
a. hot sweet tea b. a hot sweet tea c. the hot sweet tea d. one hot sweet tea
14.He answered my questions with ______ not to be expected of an ordinary schoolboy.
a. his accuracy b. a accuracy c. the accuracy d. an accuracy
15.If you go by train you can have quite ______ comfortable journey.
a. the b. one c. a d. that
16.We’re going to ______ with ______ today, aren’t we?
a. the tea…the Smiths b. tea…those Smiths c. a tea…a Smith d. tea…the Smiths
17.I want an assistant with ______ knowledge of French and ______ experience of office routine.
a. the…the b. a…the c. a…an d. the…an
18.Ann’s habit of riding a motorcycle up and down the road early in the morning annoyed the neighbors and ______ they took her to the court.
a. in the end b. at the end c. in an end d. in end
19.It is reported that today ______ president will have lunch with ______ President Omon.
a. the…the b. a…a c. the…/ d. /…/
20.Tianan Men Square and ______ Great Wall are tow of the places everyone should see in ______ People’s Republic of China.
a. the…the b. /…/ c. the…/ d. /…the
21.It has long been known that there is an electric field ______.
a. inside the earth b. inside earth c. inside an earth d. on earth
22.______ much harder work, the volunteers were able to place the raging forest fire______.
a. By the means of…under the control b. By means of…under control
c.By means of…under a control d. By a means of…under control
23.No sooner had the man departed than the tree began dropping coffee beans ______.
a. by the thousand b. by a thousand c. by thousands d. by thousand
24.He expressed ______ of their having ever been married.
a. the doubt b. a doubt c. doubt d. an doubt
25.He saw through the little boy’s tricks ______.
a. at glance b. at the glance c. at some glance d. at a glance
26.Their victory is ______,for they’ve lost too many men.
a.out of question b. out of the question c. out question d. of question
27.Many a girl wants to become ______.
a. some secretary b. a secretary c. secretary d. secretaries
28.He grabbed me ______ and pulled me onto the bus.
a. a arm b. an arm c. the arm d. by the arm
29.I’ll come in ______ minute; in fact I’ll come ______ moment I’m through.
a./…the b. a…the c. the…a d. /…/
30.This is one of ______ interesting books on your subject.
a.the most b. the most of the c. most d. most of the
31.He enjoys life ______ the “Queen Anne”.
a. on a board b . on board c. in the board d. board
32.He lost his fob and ______ his wife left him.
a. on that top b. on top of that c. on a top of that d. on the top
33.Most of the representatives think that ______ the meeting was very successful.
a. on whole of b. on a whole c. on the whole d. on the whole that
34.Under no circumstances will there be wage control while I am ______ of the government.
a.the head b. a head c. head d. that head
35.Like his sister, David needed ______ from some generous person in order to get home.
a. a ride b. some ride c. ride d. the ride
36.The brain’s left hemisphere controls logic and language, while ______controls intuitive talents and musical ability.
a. the right b. a right c. that right d. right one
37.______ is setting up a research team to see how children react to video games.
a. The Japan’s Health Ministry b. Japan’s health Ministry
b. A Japan’s health Ministry d. Japan health Ministry
38.Unlike Americans, who seem to prefer coffee,______ a great deal of tea.
a. English drink b. The English drink c. English man drink d. the English drinks
39.Hundreds of people are ______ now, so there are about 50 people trying for the same position.
a.out of the work b. out work c. out of work d. out of a work
40.His mother taught ______ ,but his father was only a blue-collar worker.
a. piano b. an piano c. the piano d. a piano
41.Contrary to what I had expected, he lost for ______.
a second time b. a second time c. second times d. the second time
42.Fashions change and people change too, but the old feeling remains ______.
a. the same b. same c. that same d. as same
43.We are going to dine tomorrow with ______ to celebrate Christmas Day.
a. the Cunning b. Cunnings c. The Cunnings d. Cunning’s
44.This is ______ which is collected before the first rain in Spring.
a. one tea b. a tea c. the tea d. that tea
45.______ is known by its note,______ is known by his talk.
a. A bird/a man b. One bird/one man c. The bird/the man d. Bird/man
46.Never travel with ______ who leaves you in case of danger.
a. the friend b. that friend c. a friend d. friend
47.Do you think it possible for the North Pole to have ______ a few thousand years from now?
a. Shanghai b. a Shanghai c. the Shanghai d. one Shanghai
48.I don’t think ______ is a better car than our makes.
a. a Ford b. Ford’s c. the Ford d. Ford
49.I didn’t know why he looked angry when I patted him ______.
a. on the head b. on head c. on a head d. on his head
50.he never fails to give you ______ when you are in trouble.
a. his helping hands b. the helping hand c. helping hands d. a helping hand
51.The historical events of that period are arranged ______.
a. in alphabetical order b. in an alphabetical order
b. in the alphabetical orders d. in a alphabetical orders
52.The like to take a vacation ______.
a. one time the year b. one time in a year c. once a year d. once in a year
53.“What is Todger?” “He is ______.”
a. a poet and novelist b. a poet and a novelist
b. poet and novelist d. the poet and novelist
54.“How did you pay the workers?”
“As a rule, they are paid ______.”
a. by an your b. by the hour c. by a hour d. by hours
55.The DMZ extends about two hundred kilometers ______.
a. from east to west b. from the east to west
c. from the east to the west d. from eastern to western
56.What ______ are you planning to buy?
a. make of car b. make of the car c. make of a car d. make of cars
57.______,you can’t fool her.
a. The child though Rowena is b. Though child Rowena is
b. As child Rowena is d. Child as Rowena is
58.What’s ______ is to get information about the situation first.
a. the wisest b. a wisest c. the wiser d. wisest
59.The differences between ______ are gradually being eliminated.
a. the town and the country b. town and country
b. a town and a country d. a town and the country
60.Scientists hope to send an expedition to Mars during ______.
a. the 1990s b. the 1990 c. 1990s d. 1990’s
1.______ martyrs have heroically laid down their lives for the people.
a. Thousand upon thousand of b. Thousand and thousands of
c. Thousands upon thousands of d. Thousand and thousand of
2.They received ______ of letters about their TV programs.
a. dozen b. dozen and dozen c score d. dozens
3.Who is that man,______ in the front row?
a. one b. the one c. first d. the first
4.We have produced ______ this year as we did in 1993.
a. as much cotton twice b. as twice much cotton
c. much as twice cotton d. twice as much cotton
5.The earth is about ______ as the moon.
a. as fifty time big b. fifty times as big c. as big fifty time d. fifty as times big
6.The population of many Alaskan cities has ______ in the past three years.
a. more than doubled b. more doubled than c. much than doubled d. much doubled than
7.The moon is about _____ in diameter as diameter as the earth.
a. one-three as large b. one three as large c. one-third as large d. one third as large
8.Five hundred yuan a month _____ enough to live on.
a. is b. are c. is being d. has been
9.______ of the buildings were ruined.
a. Three fourth b. Three four c. Three-fourths d. Three-four
10.Consult _____ for questions about earthquakes.
a. the six index b. index six c. sixth index d. index numbering six
11.She went to the countryside ______.
a. in the morning at nine/on June first,1968 b. on June first,1968/in the morning at nine
c. at nine in the morning/on June first,1968 d. on June first,1968/at nine in the morning
12.Three-fourths of the surface of the earth ______ covered with water.
a. are b. is c. were d. be
13.This month the production of stainless steel in our steelworks has increased ______ 2,000 tons.
a. with b. in c. on d. by
14.With the miniaturization of the structural components the weight of these electric devices has decreased ________ 30 percent.
a. as b. with c. in d. by
15.The Olympic Games are held ______.
a. every four years b. every four year c. every fourth years d. every four-years
16.As he is not in good health, he goes to his factory only ______ just to learn something about the progress of experiment.
a. once a week b. one week c. one time a week d. one a week
17.Three students ______ in this university come from the South.
a. of ten b. out of in ten c. out of ten d. in tens
18.Strings of the same thickness made of nylon are ______.
a. five times stronger than those b. five time stronger than those
c. five times strong than those d. five times stronger as those
19.the wheels of the old wagon are nearly ______ those of a modern car.
a. twice the size of b. twice size of c. twice sizes of d. twice the size of
20.One day on the moon is ______.
a. two Earth week long b. two Earth weeks long
b. two Earth weeks longer d. two Earth weeks length
1.My hand was hurt. Could you do ______ typing for me?
a. some b. many c. such d. any
2.There were ______ students in the reading room.
a. neither b. not c. no d. none
3.If it is of ______ use to you, please take it.
a. some b. many c. no d. any
4.I’ve invited five people to tea this afternoon. Out of them, only John and Mary can come,______ can’t.
a. other b. the other c. others d. the others
5.Most English people go to Spain for the sea, the sun and all the ______ things associated with a relaxing holiday.
a. any b. another c. some d. other
6.______ were ironed by my mother yesterday.
a. The all sheets b. all of sheets c. All the sheets d. Sheets of all
7.As usual,______ man was given his individual assignment.
a. every b. each c. all d. both
8.They saw ______ girls the day before yesterday.
a. both the other two b. the two other both c. the both other two d. the both two other
9.One uses the freezer, the computer and the business school to manufacture ______ dishes in never a tick longer than 100 seconds.
a. such others b. other such c. such other d. other such a
10.______ boxer was strong, but ______ had a good build and was light on his feet.
a.Either/every b. Neither/each c. Both/both d. All the/all
11.______ was astonished to find himself rooting and shouting in a most undignified manner.
a. Many elderly man b. A many elderly men
c. Many an elderly man d. Many elderly men
12.I know now, of course, there is ______ as love.
a. no such a thing b. not such thing c. not a thing d. no such thing
13.As there were ______ life-boats for everybody,40 lives were lost.
a. as little b. so little c. too few d. very few
14.He was brave;_____ soldiers fought so bravely in that battle.
a. no others b. no another c. no other d. not other
15.I don’t think we have met before. I’m afraid you’re confusing me with ______.
a. some other b. some other person c. other person d. one other
16. 16.Weekends last from Friday evening to Sunday night.______ days are week-days.
a. The other b. Another c. Other d. Every other
17.We had ______ good time that we hated to leave the party.
a. such a b. such c. so d. pretty
18.Paris is ______ that we can hardly visit all the beautiful parks in two or three days.
a. such large a city b. so a large city c. such a large city d. a such large city
19.Deputies to the National People’s Congress are elected_______.
a. every four year b. each four years c. every of four years d. every four years
20.There is hardly ______difference between the two libraries.
a. no b. any c. much d. some
21.For young people, Carpenter is ______ singer.
a. most their popular b. most popular of theirs
c.their most popular d. most popular of their
22.______ are about the American Independent War.
a. Both book b. Both books c. All the two book d. all of two books
23.When I am in trouble, my friends will give me their hands without ______ hesitation.
a. some b. a c. any d. the
24.You’re welcome to my house ______ time you’d like.
a. the b. any c. no d. some
25.He was very much disappointed because ______ went to his wedding party.
a. no his friends b. all no his friends c. none his friends d. none of his friends
26.You shouldn’t stop your car here since there is a sign ‘______’.
a. Not Parking b. No Park c. No Parking d. Not a Park
27.I cannot invited ______ of you, since I’ve got only one extra ticket.
a. either b. both c. some d. one
28.______ the idioms are not easy to remember and use.
a. Every b. Some c. All d. Each
29.There is a line of trees in ______ side of the river.
a. every b. each c. per d. none
30.______ our countries are developing countries.
a. Each b. Either c. Every d. Both
31.The scientist wrote a number of books, but ______ books were novels.
a. last two his b. his last two c. two his last d. last two of his
32.Have you got ______ copies to go around?
a. much c. a large amount of c. enough d. great
33.You can never use my car. ____ time should you touch it.
a. At no b. At any c. any d. No
34.My brother is going on the picnic with ______ friends.
a. his two little other b. other his two little c. his other little two d. his two other little
35.Those examples are not enough, you should give ______ examples to make your argument convincing.
a. some b. any c. some more d. any more
36.______ feels entitled to more in life than just housework.
a. Many women b. A lot of woman c. Many a woman d. A few woman
37.You will have to practice ______ times before you can do it.
a.many more b. more many c. more often d. more several
38.It is ______ work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it.
a. a so unusual b. such an unusual c. so unusual d. such unusual
39.This cake is delicious, but I can’t eat ______.
a. some b. no c. any d. much
40.Here are some books by American writers. You can read ______ you like.
a. any b. which c. what one d. whichever one
1 C 19 C 37 B 55 C
2 B 20 A 38 B 56 A
3 D 21 A 39 C 57 D
4 A 22 B 40 C 58 D
5 A 23 C 41 B 59 B
6 D 24 B 42 A 60 A
7 B 25 D 43 C 61
8 C 26 B 44 B 62
9 B 27 D 45 A 63
10 C 28 D 46 C 64
11 C 29 B 47 B 65
12 A 30 A 48 C 66
13 C 31 B 49 A 67
14 D 32 B 50 D 68
15 C 33 C 51 A 69
16 D 34 C 52 C 70
17 C 35 A 53 A 71
18 A 36 A 54 B 72
1 C 6 A 11 C 16 A
2 D 7 C 12 B 17 C
3 D 8 A 13 D 18 A
4 D 9 C 14 D 19 A
5 B 10 B 15 A 20 B
1 A 19 D 37 A
2 C 20 B 38 B
3 D 21 C 39 C
4 D 22 B 40 D
5 D 23 C 41
6 C 24 B 42
7 B 25 D 43
8 A 26 C 44
9 B 27 B 45
10 B 28 C 46
11 C 29 B 47
12 D 30 D 48
13 C 31 B 49
14 A 32 C 50
15 B 33 A 51
16 A 34 D 52
17 A 35 C 53
18 C 36 C 54
We are having a meeting. 我们正在开会。（have是实义动词。）
He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。（have是助动词。）
3） 动词根据其后是否带有宾语，可分为两类，分别是：及物动词、不及物动词，英语缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。
She can dance and sing. 她能唱歌又能跳舞。（sing在此用作不及物动词。）
She can sing many English songs. 她能唱好多首英文歌曲。（sing用作及物动词。）
She sings very well. 她唱得很好。（sing受主语she的限制，故用第三人称单数形式sings。）
She wants to learn English well. 她想学好英语。（to learn不受主语she的限制，没有词形变化，是非限定动词。）
The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases. 英语里有许多短语动词和动词短语。（contains是单字动词。）
Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries. 学生们学会查字典。（look up是短语动词。）
The young ought to take care of the old. 年轻人应照料老人。（take care of是动词短语。）
He fell ill yesterday. 他昨天病了。（fell是系动词，后跟补足语，说明主语情况。）
He fell off the ladder. 他从梯子上摔下来。fell是实义动词，单独作谓语。
He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。（is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。）
用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度，主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand。例如：
He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。
This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。
用来表示“看起来像”这一概念，主要有seem, appear, look。例如：
He looks tired. 他看起来很累。
He seems （to be） very sad. 他看起来很伤心。
感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste。 例如：
This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。
This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。
这些系动词表示主语变成什么样，变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run。例如：
He became mad after that. 自那之后，他疯了。
She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。
表示主语已终止动作，主要有prove, turn out, 表达“证实”，“变成”之意。例如：
The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。（turn out表终止性结果）
He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。
He is singing. 他在唱歌。
He has got married. 他已结婚。
He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。
Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗？
Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗？
I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。
Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。
He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。
3） 最常用的助动词有：be, have, do, shall, will, should, would等。
1） be +现在分词，构成进行时态。例如：
They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。
English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。
2） be + 过去分词，构成被动语态。例如：
The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。
English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。
3） be + 动词不定式，可表示下列内容：
He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。
We are to teach the freshmen. 我们要教新生。
You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。
He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。
How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他？
Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢？
We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。
He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。
By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止，他们已经完成工作的一半。
2）have + been +现在分词，构成完成进行时。例如：
I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语，已达十年之久。
3）have +been +过去分词，构成完成式被动语态。例如：
English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。
5.5 助动词do 的用法
Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗？
Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗？
2）do + not 构成否定句。例如：
I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。
He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。
In the past, many students did not know the importance of English.
Don't go there. 不要去那里。
Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。
Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。
I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。
I do miss you. 我确实想你。
Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。
Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 进了大学以后，我们才认识到英语的重要性。
说明： 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。
---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗？
---- Yes, I do. --是的，喜欢。（do用作代动词，代替like Beijing.）
He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车，对吧？
I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。
He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。
He shall come. 他必须来。（shall有命令的意味。）
He will come. 他要来。（will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。）
5.7 助动词should, would的用法
I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话，问他我下周干什么。
比较：“What shall I do next week?” I asked. “我下周干什么？”我问道。
He said he would come. 他说他要来。
比较：“I will go,” he said. 他说：“我要去那儿。”变成间接引语，就成了He said he would come。原来的will变成would，go变成了come.。
Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。（turn off是短语动词）
3）动词+副词+介词，如：look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词。
时态语态 主动 被动
一般式 to do to be done
完成式 to have done to have been done
时态语态 主动 被动
一般式 doing being done
完成式 having done having been done
时态语态 主动 被动
一般式 doing being done
完成式 having done having been done
否定形式： not +不定式， not + 动名词， not + 现在分词
1.If it is fine tomorrow, we ______ a football match.
a. have b. will have c. has d. shall has
2.When he was at school, he ______ early and take a walk before breakfast.
a. will rise b. shall rise b. should rise would rise
3.In the past 30 years China ______ great advances in the socialist revolution and socialist construction.
a. has made b. have made c. had made d. having made
4.I ______ go to bed until I ______ finished my work.
a. don’t/had b. didn’t/have c. didn’t/had d. don’t/have
5.______ you think he ______ back by dinner time?
a. Do/have come b. Did/will have come c. Does/will come d. Do/will have come
6.He said that he dropped his bag when he ______ for the bus.
a. was runing b. was running c. were running d. is running
7.No sooner ______ he arrived home than he ______ to start on another journey.
a. has/was asked b. have/were asked c. had/is asked d. had/was asked
8.“______ you give me a room for the night?” I asked on arriving at the hotel.
a. Should b. Can c. Might d. May
9.There are nine of them, so ______ get into the car at the same time.
a. they may not at all b. all they may not c. they can’t all d. all they can’t
10.“We didn’t see him at the lecture yesterday.” “He ______ it.”
a. mustn’t attend b. cannot have attended
c. would have not attended d. needn’t have attended
11.“You realize that you were driving at 100 mph, don’t you?”
“No, officer. I ______. This car can’t do more than 80.”
a. didn’t need to be b. may not have been c. couldn’t have been d. needn’t have been
12.he was a good runner so he ______ escape from the police.
a. might b. succeeded to c. would d. was able to
13.If they ______, our plan will fall flat.
a..are co-operating b. had not co-operated c. won’t co-operate d. didn’t co-operate
14.I hoped ______ my letter.
a. her to answer b. that she would answer c. that she answers d. her answering
15.He ______ live in the country than in the city.
a. prefers b. likes to c. had better d. would rather
16.______ to see a film with us today?
a. Did you like b. Would you like c. Will you like d. Have you liked
17.I’m sorry, but I had no alternative. I simply ______ what I did.
a. must do b. had to do c. ought to have done d. have to do
18.“Time is running out,______?”
a. hadn’t we better got start b. hadn’t we better get start
b. hadn’t we better get started d. hadn’t we better not started
19.No one ______ that to his face.
a. dares say b. dares saying c. dare say d. dare to say
20.The students in the classroom ______ not to make so much noise.
a. need b. ought c. must d. dare
21.You ______ last week if you were really serious about your work.
a. ought to come b. ought to be coming c. ought have come d. ought to have come
22.The elephants ought ______ hours ago by the keepers.
a. to be fed b. to feed c. to being fed d. to have been fed
23.“I wonder why they’re late.” “They ______ the train.”
a. can have missed b. could miss c. may have missed d. might miss
24.“Tom graduated from college at a very young age.”
“He ______ have been an outstanding student.”
a. must b. could c. should d. might
25.You ______ the examination again since you had already passed it.
a. needn’t have taken b. didn’t need to take c. needn’t take d. mustn’t take
26.He is really incompetent! The letter ______ yesterday.
a. should be finished typing b. must be finished typing
b. must have finished typing c. should have been finished typing
27.The boy told his father that he would rather ______ an astronaut.
a. become b. to become c. becoming d. became
28.When we reached the station, the train had still not arrived; so we ______.
a. needed not to hurry b. needn’t have hurried
c.need not to have hurried d. didn’t need to hurry
29.Since your roommate is visiting her family this weekend,_____ you like to have dinner with us tonight?
a. will b. won’t c. wouldn’t d. do
30.He was afraid what he had done ______ a disastrous effect on his career.
a. might have b. could be c. have been d. shall be
31.He ______ hardly say anything more, since you know about it.
a. don’t need to b. needn’t c. needs d. need
32.You ______ the look on his face when he won the prize.
a. would have seen b. should have seen c. must see d. can be seeing
33.Some people think the stock market will crash, but ______.
a. I wonder if it happens b. I doubt if it will happen
c. I am afraid it wouldn’t happen d. I doubt if it does happen
34.“Whatever has happened to George?” “I don’t know. He ______ lost.”
a. can have got b. may have got c. might get d. could get
35.He has no idea what the book is about. He ______read the book.
a. couldn’t b. couldn’t have c. mightn’t have d. shouldn’t have
36.New studies show that two of Saturn’s rings ______ longer than the 4.5 billion years since the birth of the Solar System.
a. could have lasted b. should have lasted c. would have lasted d. must be lasting
37.Take the telescope with you in case you ______ it in your expedition.
a. will need b. would need c. should need d. could need
38.Need he come at once? Yes, he ______.
a. must b. must not c. need d. may
39.Please answer the phone. It ______ be by your father. If it is, would you tell that I want to see him?
a. will b. should c. would d. could
40.We’ll never give in whatever they ______ say or do.
a. may b. will c. shall d. should
41.With all this work on hand, he ______ to the cinema last night.
a. mustn’t go b. wouldn’t go c. oughtn’t go d. shouldn’t have gone
42.Everyone ______ the cake because there wasn’t even a small piece left.
a. must like b. must have liked c. must have been liking d. had liked
43.I wish to recollect where I met her, ______?
a. would I b. may I c. may not I d. can I
44.I ______ think he will ______ dare the risk.
a. not/ .. b. do/not c. ../not d. don’t/..
45.If reading is to accomplish anything more than passing time, it ______ be active.
a. may not b. must c. might d. is not
46.You ______ your seats today if you want to go to the game.
a. had better to reserve b. had better reserve
c. had to better reserve d. had to reserve better
47.I ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary.
a. would rather not have b. would not rather had
b. rather would not have d. rather not would have
48.Many scientists ______ their own eyes and ears than the theories of the ancients.
a. would rather to believe b. would rather believe
c. rather would believe d. will rather believe
49.To travel from England to Scotland you ______ a passport.
a. haven’t got b. mustn’t have c. needn’t d. don’t need
50.One of the statements ______ to be untrue.
a. is turned out b. has turned out c. have been turned out d. have turned out
51.I don’t know whether it will rain or not, but if it ______ rain, I shall stay at home.
a. will b. did c. does d. shall
52.“You’d like some tea,______?”
a. wouldn’t you b. shouldn’t you c. hadn’t you d. didn’t you
53.“May we take the books out?”
a. No, you may not b. No, you can not c. No, you can’t d. Please don’t
54.“I would have come sooner, but I ______ that you were waiting.”
a. didn’t know b. hasn’t known c. hadn’t know d. haven’t known
55.If you don’t want to, you ______ to get there with us.
a. mustn’t b. can’t c. don’t have d. have not
56.I would go to visit them but I ______ think they are anxious to see me.
a. haven’t b. don’t c. doesn’t d. didn’t
57.Whatever you can do,______.
a. I can do so as well b. I can do this as well
b.I can do it as well d. I can do as well
58._____- I realized the consequences I would never have contemplated getting involved.
a. Had b. Have c. Having d. Has
59.“Perhaps she is working for John.” “Yes, she ______ for him.”
a.need have been working b. may be working
b.ought have been working d. ought be working
60.“I know she was in because I heard her radio, but she didn’t open the door.” “She ______ the bell.”
a. may not be hearing b. may not have heard
b.must not have heard d. must not be hearing
61. “He was smoking.” “Then he ______ .”
a.ought to have been not smoking b. ought to have not been smoking
b.ought not to have been smoking d. ought to not have been smoking
62.You ______ out yesterday without a coat. No wonder you caught cold.
a. oughtn’t have gone b. shouldn’t have gone c. mustn’t have gone d. can’t have gone
63.“Paul was riding a bicycle along the motorway when he was hit by the trailer of a lorry.”
“He _____ a bicycle along the motorway; bicycles are not allowed.”
a. shouldn’t have been riding b. couldn’t have been riding
c.oughtn’t have been riding d. can’t have been riding
64.I am listening. But you ______.
a. need be listening b. should be listening c. need have been listening d. ought be listening
65.He ______ with us last night.
a.would have liked to go b. should like to be going
b.should be liked to go d. would like to go
66.I ______ his face when he opened the letter.
a. should like you to see b. would have liked you to be seen
b.should like you to have seen d. would like you to see
67.You say you ______ do it, but I say you ______ do it.
a. ought not/could b. will not/shall c. could not/need d. shall not/ought
68.We ______ put the meeting off for a week.
a. can as well b. will as well c. shall as well d. may as well
69.______ wind your watch every day?
a. Do you need b. Must you have to c. Have you to d. Do you have to
70.______ give him a chance to try?
a. Oughtn’t to we b. Oughtn’t we to c. Ought to we not d. Oughtn’t we
71.“Did you blame him for his mistakes?” “______”
a. I’d rather not do b. I’d not rather do c. I’d better not do d. I’d rather not doing
72.You had better ______ your hair cut.
a. had b. have c. to get d. to have
73.My sister didn’t go to the party last night because she ______ the baby for her friend until 9:30.
a.must have looked after b. would have to look after
b.had to look after d. should have looked after
74.Mary is very late, she ______.
a.may miss her train b. may have missed her train
c.must miss her train d. could miss her train
75.No matter what you may say, he ______ to his own views.
a.would always stick b. will always stick c. should always stick d. must always stick to
76.It’s wonderful that you ______ have achieved so much in these years.
a. may b. can c. should d. would
77.The students asked whether he ______ take the books out of the reading-room.
a. could b. might c. should d. would
78.He ______ still be thinking about the question you raised.
a. may b. might c. must d. should
79.I’d be glad if you______ give me an account of the fact.
a.shall b. should c. would d. may
80.He ______ accomplish the task in time.
a. did b. has c. is d. do
1 B 19 C 37 C 55 C 73 C
2 D 20 B 38 A 56 B 74 B
3 A 21 D 39 D 57 D 75 B
4 C 22 D 40 A 58 A 76 C
5 D 23 C 41 D 59 B 77 A
6 B 24 A 42 B 60 B 78 B
7 D 25 B 43 B 61 C 79 C
8 B 26 D 44 D 62 B 80 A
9 C 27 A 45 B 63 A 81
10 B 28 B 46 B 64 B 82
11 C 29 C 47 A 65 A 83
12 D 30 A 48 B 66 C 84
13 C 31 D 49 D 67 B 85
14 B 32 B 50 B 68 D 86
15 D 33 B 51 C 69 D 87
16 B 34 B 52 A 70 B 88
17 B 35 B 53 D 71 A 89
18 C 36 A 54 A 72 B 90
时态/语态 主动 被动
一般式 writing being written
完成式 having written having been written
Fighting broke out between the South and the North. 南方与北方开战了。
admit 承认 appreciate 感激 avoid 避免 complete完成 consider认为 delay 耽误
deny 否认 detest 讨厌 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 fancy 想象
finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 想念 postpone推迟 practice 训练
recall 回忆 resent 讨厌 resume 继续 resist 抵抗 risk 冒险 suggest 建议
face 面对 include 包括 stand 忍受 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续
例如：Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please? 你把收音机音量调小一点，好吗
The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught. 这松鼠幸运得很，刚逃避了被逮住的厄运。
admit to prefer…to be used to lead to devote oneself to object to
stick to no good no use be fond of look forward to be proud of
be busy can't help be tired of be capable of be afraid of think of
burst out keep on insist on count on set about
put off be good at take up give up be successful in
Her job is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children. 她的工作是洗刷、清扫和照顾孩子。
比较：She is washing, cleaning and taking care of the children.
a writing desk=a desk for writing 写字台
a swimming pool=a pool swimming 游泳池
boiling point=a temperature point at which something begins to boil 沸点
a walking tractor=a tractor which a driver can operate while he or she is walking behind it 手扶拖拉机
6.2 worth 的用法
worth, worthy, worthwhile都是形容词，意为“值得”。
1. worth： be worth + n. 当名词为金钱时，表示“…… 值得……”
常见的有It ’s worth while to do./ It ’s worth（someone’s）while doing
be worth doing sth. “……某事值得被做”
The question is not worth discussing again and again. 这问题不值得反复讨论。
2. worthy：be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示“……值得……”
be worthy to be done “某事值得被做”
The question is not worthy to be discussed again and again.
3. worthwhile：be worthwhile to do sth “值得做某事”
It is worthwhile to ask him to join the club.值得邀请他加入俱乐部。
It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again.
A. worth B. worthy C. worthwhile D. worth while
答案C. 由worth的用法可知，此句只适合词组be worthwhile to do sth.。选C。
1.I was ______ work last week, but I changed my mind.
a. to start b. to have started c. to be starting d. to have been starting
2.I intended ______ the matter with you, but I had some guests hen.
a. discuss b. discussing c. having discussed d. to have discussed
3.Don’t let me catch you ______.
a. do that again b. to do that again c. doing that again d. done that again
4.There are many kinds of metals ______.
a.each has its special properties b. one has its special properties
b. each having its special properties d. having its special properties
5.It’s pay-day, and they’re waiting ______.
a. for paying b. to be paid c. to be paying d. to have paid
6._______ trouble, I’m going to forget the whole affair.
a. Then rather cause b. Rather causing
c. Rather than cause d. Rather than caused
7. The brilliance of his satires was ______ make even his victims laugh.
a. so as to b. such as to c. so that d. such that
8.Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined ______ high levels of self-confidence.
a. possess b. have possessed c. to possess d. possessing
9.The worker is ______ in repairing the machine to notice my coming.
a. too busy b. enough busy c. busy too d. busy enough
10.“What did you do in the garden?”
“I watched my father ______ his motorbike.”
a. to repair b. repaired c. repairing d. repairs
11.We must have an engineer ______ the workers build the house.
a. to see b. see c. seeing d. seen
12.Induction means ______ a general conclusion from special facts.
a. to come to b. to coming c. coming to d. came
13.I’m not going to ask the teacher why he gave me that grade; I intend _______.
a. to let rest the matter b. the matter to be let resting
c. letting the matter to rest d. to let the matter rest
14.I have tried _______ worrying about it.
a. to stop consciously b. to consciously stop
c. to conscious stopping d. to stopping consciously
15.“Do you want to give a talk on that subject?”
“I prefer ______ .”
a. not want b. not wanting c. to not giving d. not to
16.I _______ the truth of your remarks, although they go against my interests.
a. cannot but admit b. cannot help but to admit
c. cannot but admitting d. cannot help but admitting
17.Since she is angry, we ______.
a. had better leaving her alone b. should leave her alone
c. might as well leave her alone d. had rather leave her alone
18.I don’t allow ______ in my office and I don’t allow my family ______ at all.
a. to smoke…smoking b. smoking…to smoke
c. to smoke…to smoke d. smoking…smoking
19.You should remember ______ from the point when you are writing a composition.
a. don’t wander b. not to wander c. no wandering d. not wander
20.Grace advised us to withdraw ______.
a. so as to get not involved b. so as not to get involved
c. so that to get not involved d. as not to get involved
21.He ran all the way up to the station ______ that the train had left fifteen minutes before.
a. in order to find b. so as to find c. only to find d. such as to find
22.George went hunting for a week but still he didn’t find a room ______.
a. to live b. to live in c. for living d. to be living in
23.You should really avoid ______ at home alone as he is old and ill.
a. your father stay b. your father to stay
c. your father’s staying d. your father who stays
24.John didn’t want to risk ______ wet as he had only one suit.
a. getting b. to get c. being got d. to be gotten
25.I’m disappointed with the new officers elected in our club, but there is no point _______ about it.
a. to worry b. in worrying c. with us worrying d. if we worry
26.It won’t be any use ______ to borrow any more money.
a. you to try b. of your trying c. trying you d. your trying
27.The law requires all cars _______ for safety and efficiency.
a. being tested regularly b. to be regularly tested
c. be regularly tested d. regularly tested
28.I remember ______ to the zoo by my father when I was little.
a. being taken b. taking c. have been taken d. to have taken
29.I completely forgot ______ the front door last night and feel fortunate that nothing is stolen.
a. locking b. being locked c. to lock d. to have locked
30.I regret ______ you that your application has been refused.
a. informing b. being informed c. to be informed d. to inform
31.I didn’t mean ______ anything, but these apples looked so good I couldn’t resist ______ one.
a. to eat…trying b. to eat…o trying c. eating…to try d. eating…to trying
32.I know it isn’t important but I can’t help ______ about it.
a. but to think b. thinking c. think d. to think
33.The ship, ______ to a shapeless wreck, was hardly recognizable.
a. being reduced b. reducing c. reduced d. having been reducing
34.The young doctor could not sleep at night, his thoughts ______ him no peace.
a. gave b. giving c. being given d. to give
35.After a long walk on a hot day, one feels ______.
a. exhaustive b. exhausting c. exhaust d. exhausted
36.Those relatives of his are ______ . I don’t want to have any dealings with them.
a. boring people b. bored people
c. people having bored d. people having boring
37.You must follow the directions exactly and if you become ______, you must take the time to go back again and reread them.
a. to confuse b. confusing c. confuse d. confused
38.There is something wrong with my TV set, I must have it ______.
a. checking b. check c. to check d. checked
39.He was just about to jump up when he felt something ______ near his feet.
a. to move b. move c. moving d. moved
40.______ with the corresponding period of last year, the output of chemical fibers in the first quarter rose by 15%.
a. Comparing b. To compare c. Compared d. Compare
41.“Was the rally successful?’
“No, because the number of ______ was smaller than we had expected.”
a. people who attend b. attended people
c. people attending d. attendance of people
42.Uncle Dick has already arrive. Do you expect ______ to see him?
a. Going b. go c. to go d. that you go
43.From the electric refrigerator Dick takes a carton of cream, another of fresh milk and a can of ______ orange juice.
a.frozen b. froze c. freezing d. freezed
44.He felt bad for ______ a chance to study abroad.
a. having not given b. not having given
c. having not been given d. not having been given
45.In some countries there are already a number of firms ______ computer programming.
a. specialize in b. specialized in c. specializing in d. specializes in
46.The young man who saw the car ______ into the river telephoned the police station.
a. plunge b. plunged c. was plunging d. to plunge
47.While she was shopping, she kept ______ the list to make sure she hadn’t forgotten anything.
a. checked b. checking c. to check d. check
48.You’d better ______.
a. to have your shoes mended b. to have mended your shoes
c. have your shoes mended d. having your shoes mended
49.The machines are made ______ at full speed.
a. work b. working c. to work d. to be worked
50.It is certain that men will never stop ______ new energy sources to power their growing industry.
a. finding b. to find c. having found d. found
51.It is really quite extraordinary that we should have been at the same college without ______ before.
a. met b. being met c. having met d. having been met
52.Professor Smith is said ______ another important discovery in chemistry.
a. having made b. having been made c. to have made d. to make
53.Without the sun’s light ______ the earth’s surface, it would be so cold that life could not exist on the earth.
a. warms b. warmed c. warming d. to warm
54.The rocket will weigh about 200 tons when ______.
a. being completed b. completed completing d. have been completed
55.There are plans ______ a number of atomic power station in this regions.
a. to build b. to be built c. building d. being built
56.All of us are looking forward to ______ a trip to the Ming Tombs.
a. make b. making c. to making d. have made
57.I can’t understand ______ a decision until it is too late.
a. him to postpone to make b. his postponing to make
c. him to postponing making d. his postponing making
58.I would like ______ that I don’t have a very high opinion of you.
a. to have you know b. have you know
c. to have your known d. having you know
59.I had intended ______ him while he was living at Aberdeen.
a. visiting b. visit c. to have visited d. having visited
60.Do you consider better _______ ?
a. not doing it again b. not do it again
c. not having done it again d. not to do it again
61.The famous scientist was easy _______ along with.
a. to get b. for getting c. getting d. got
62.The students will have more discussions like this in the weeks ______.
a. coming b. to come c. come d. to be coming
63.He felt lonely at first, but after a time he got ______ alone and even got ______ it.
a. used to living…to like b. used to live… to like
c. using to live…liking d. to be used to living…liking
64.Our master raised his voice so that the could make himself ______ by the pupils in the back of the hall.
a. hear b. heard c. hearing d. to be heard
65.When he awoke, he found himself ______ in the hospital and ______ by an old woman.
a. lying…being looked after b. lying…be looking after
c. lie…be looked after d. lie…being looked after
66.______ from the hill-top the lake scenery is beyond description.
a. To see b. Seeing c. Seen d. Having seen
67.______ in the strange forest, the poor girls fell to ______.
a. Lost…crying b. Lost…cry c. To lost…cry d. Having been lost…crying
68.They’ll have you ______ if you don’t pay your taxes.
a. to be arrested b. arrest c. arrested d. being arrested
69.All flights ______ because of the storm, they decided to take the train.
a. having cancelled b. were cancelled
c. have been cancelled d. having been cancelled
70.Although it was very late when John began doing the job, he managed with his friend’s assistance, ______ before the building was locked.
a. to be finished b. being finished c. finishing d. to finish
71.Despite the earnest efforts of various private groups as well as government agencies, many of the problems have not yet been solved, and much remains to ______.
a. have been done b. be done c. have done d. do
72.______ that bad weather was on the way, the climbers decided to put off their attempt on Eiger until the following week.
a. Having told b. Being told c. Telling d. Having been told
73.Members of the Government itself acknowledge many of their predictions _______ wildly over-optimistic.
a. to be b. being c. to have been d. having been
74.The match was cancelled because most of the members ______ a match without a standard court.
a. objected to having b. objected to have
c. were objected to have d. were objected to having
75.The teacher doesn’t permit ______ in class.
a. smoke b. smoking c. to smoke d. to have smoke
76.I like watching TV ______ to the cinema.
a. more than to go b. more than going
c. than going d. rather than to go
77.The manager promised to keep me ______ of how our business was going on.
a. to be informed b. informed c. on informing d. informing
78.Mrs. Brown is supposed ______ for Italy last week.
a. to have left b. to leave c. to be leaving d. to have been left
79.Dorothy went to work quietly, ______ to work as hard as she could.
a. her mind being made up b. with her mind made up
c. with her mind making up d. he mind making up
80.Husband and wife with a common duty to the country will find themselves ______ closer together.
a. been drawn b. drawn c. to draw d. drawing
81.Here we found little snow, as most of it seemed ______ blown off the mountain.
a. to have been b. that it was c. to be d. that it had been
82.______ halfway through the exercise, the teacher changed his mind and collected all our papers.
a. When only being b. When we were only
c. Being only d. Having been
83.Some passengers are reading the morning paper, others are talking with one another, ______ nervously for the train.
a. to wait b. are waiting c. waiting d. being waited
84.There’s one thing I dislike about him: he will never admit ______ a mistake.
a. having made b. making c. being made d. have been made
85.Stan spent half a year ______ material for his new book.
a. to collect b. collect c. collecting d. collected
86.It’s no use ______ me not to worry.
a. you tell b. your telling c. for you to have told d. having told
87.The chairman insists that there be a meeting _______ within the shortest possible time.
a. to hold b. to be held c. to have been held d. to be holding
88.When the famous pianist was a child, he was accustomed ______ for several hours a day.
a. to practicing b. to practice c. to be practicing d. to have practiced.
89.In China hundreds of different dialects are spoken; people of some villages ______ themselves understood by the inhabitants of the next town.
a. making trouble have b. have making trouble
c. have trouble making d. trouble making have
90.It’s a wonderful place for anyone ______ in architecture, as you are.
a. interesting b. to be interested c. being interested d. interested
91.Another feature worth ______ is the role of information throughout a feedback control system..
a. noticed b. noticing c. being noticed d. notice
92.I believe ______ very largely due to mistaken views of the world.
a. this unhappiness are b. to be this unhappiness
c. this be unhappiness d. this unhappiness to be
93.When they met, Leonards and his enemy were fighting ______.
a. killed each other b. to kill each other
c. killing each other d. to be killed each other
94.Before the invention of aero-planes, ______ in the sky like a bird was only a dream.
a. men fly b. to fly c. for flying d. man flys
95.At last they succeeded ______ the job.
a. to persuade him to take b. in persuading him to take
c. to persuade him taking d. in persuading him taking
96.All that it does is ______ the place of a house wife.
a. takes b. taking c. take d. being taken
97.He listened to me ______ what Mr. Smith had said the day before.
a. to repeat b. to be repeated c. to repeating d. repeat
98.He could do little except ______.
a. writing b. write c. written d. to write
99.The electric shaver ______ before it can be used.
a. needs repairing b. requires to repair
b.should be in repair d. has to be repairable
100. ______ a problem requiring multiplication or division, the computer solves it by adding or subtracting.
a. Giving b. Having given c. Being given d. Given
101. You can fly to London this evening ______ you don’t mind changing planes in Paris.
a. provided b. except c. unless d. so far as
102. Students from the south prefer _______.
a. eat rice than bread b. eating rice than bread
c. eating rice to eating bread d. eating rice to eat bread
103. Would you be ______ to help me with my luggage?
a. enough kind b. kind enough
c. too kind d. kind too
104. The father advise ______ the second-hand car.
a. his son to not buy b. his son not to buy
c. his son’s no buying d. that his son not to buy
105. “Do you intend to come with us?”
a. I intend so b. I intend that c. I intend to d. I intend
106. It takes a whole year for the earth ______ round the sun once.
a. traveling b. to travel c. traveled d. travels
107. The factory ______ next year will be one of the largest in this city.
a. to build b. to be built c. being built d. having been built
108. With the guide ______ the way, we set off on foot into the dark night.
a. leading b. led c. leads d. to lead
109. They got the work ______ before the rainy season set in.
a. to do b. done c. doing d. did
110. Things are known ______ when they unite with the oxygen of the air.
a. burning b. to burn c. burn d. being burning
111. He was thoroughly ashamed ______ so much money on such an ugly picture.
a. for spending b. with spending
c. to have spent d. of having spent
112. ______ of the burden of ice, the balloon climbed up and drifted to the South.
a. To be free b. Freeing c. To free d. Freed
113. The bank is reported in the local newspaper ______ in broad daylight yesterday.
a. to be robbed b. robbed c. to have been robbed d. having been robbed
114. There seemed little hope that the explorer, ______ in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.
a. to be deserted b. having deserted
c. to have been deserted d. having been deserted
115. “Where should I send my application?”
“The Personnel Office is the place ______.”
a. to sent it b. sent it to c. to send it to d. for sending it
116. The publisher will send you a specimen copy of their new book ______.
a. when it will be requested b. when they are requested
c. when requested d. when request it
117. Rome is the city ______.
a. I rather most like to visit b. I’d most like to visit
c. I’m rather to visit most d. I’d prefer most to visit
118. There ______ no further business, the meeting came to a stop.
a. being b. was c. been d. had been
119. Please remind me ______ some eggs for the coming party.
a. buy b. to buy c. of buying d. for buying
120. Don’t say anything at the meeting unless ______.
a. asking b. asked c. being asked d. to be asked
121. The radio announced that all flights ______ have been cancelled because of the fog.
a. go out b. gone out c. going out d. will go out
122. What’s the use ______ extra leisure time if you don’t know what to do?
a. have b. to have c. being have d. of knowing
123. ______ mathematical concepts of some students was very difficult because the students did not have a math background.
a. Explain b. Explaining c. Have explained d. Having explained
124. Although John was the oldest in the family, he always let his sister _____ charge of the house.
a. to take b. taking c. take d. taken
125. Commercial banks make most of their income from interest ______ on loans and investment in stocks and bonds.
a. earn b. earned c. to earn d. was earned
126. Amelia Earhart, the first woman ______ a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean, was born in 1898.
a. makes b. made c. making d. to make
127. It is impossible for the plan ______.
a. to put into practice b. not to put into practice
c. to be put into practice d. to be not put into practice
128. ______ is what she wants to know.
a. Who to do it b. Whom to do it
c. Who does it do d. Whom doing it
129. My wife suggested ______ to Scotland for a holiday, but I favor ______ Wales instead.
a. to go…to visit b. going …visiting
c. to go…visiting d. going …to visit
130. There are several ______ leaves on the ground.
a. falling b. fallen c. to fall d. fell
1 B 19 B 37 D 55 A 73 C 91 B 109 B 127 C
2 D 20 B 38 D 56 B 74 A 92 D 110 B 128 A
3 C 21 C 39 C 57 D 75 B 93 B 111 D 129 B
4 C 22 B 40 C 58 A 76 B 94 B 112 D 130 B
5 B 23 C 41 C 59 B 77 B 95 B 113 C
6 C 24 A 42 C 60 D 78 A 96 C 114 D
7 B 25 B 43 A 61 A 79 B 97 D 115 C
8 C 26 D 44 D 62 B 80 B 98 B 116 C
9 A 27 B 45 C 63 A 81 A 99 A 117 B
10 C 28 A 46 A 64 B 82 B 100 D 118 A
11 B 29 C 47 B 65 A 83 C 101 A 119 B
12 C 30 D 48 C 66 C 84 A 102 C 120 B
13 D 31 A 49 C 67 A 85 C 103 B 121 C
14 B 32 B 50 A 68 C 86 B 104 B 122 D
15 D 33 C 51 D 69 D 87 B 105 C 123 B
16 B 34 B 52 C 70 D 88 A 106 B 124 C
17 D 35 D 53 C 71 B 89 C 107 B 125 B
18 D 36 A 54 B 72 D 90 D 108 A 126 D
数 单数 复数
格 主格 宾格 主格 宾格
第一人称 I me we us
第二人称 you you you you
第三人称 he him they them
she her they them
it it they them
例如：He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。
It's me. 是我。
数 单数 复数
人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
形容词性物主代词 my your his/her/its our your their
名词性物主代词 mine yours his/hers/its ours yours theirs
例如： I like his car. 我喜欢他的小汽车。
Our school is here，and theirs is there. 我们的学校在这儿，他们的在那儿。
例如：That is a good idea. 那是个好主意。
例如：She was talking to herself. 她自言自语。
五、 表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词，有each other 和one another两组，但在运用中，这两组词没什么大的区别。
例如：They love each other. 他们彼此相爱。
六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。常见的不定代词有a11，both，each，every等，以及含有some-，any-，no-等的合成代词，如anybody， something，no one。这些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词，在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语，但none和由some，any，no等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语；every和no只能作定语。
例如：--- Do you have a car? --你有一辆小汽车吗？
--- Yes，I have one. --是的，我有一辆。
--- I don't know any of them. 他们，我一个也不认识。
例如：Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。
例如：He is the man whom you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。
John waited a while but eventually he went home. 约翰等了一会儿，最后他回家了。
John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she. 约翰希望那位乘客是玛丽，还真是她。
When he arrived, John went straight to the bank. 约翰一到就直接去银行了。
例如： I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her. 我看到她和他们在一起，至少我认为是她。（her做宾语，them做介词宾语，her做主语补语）
a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶？
b. -- Me. --我。（me做主语补语= It's me.）
---- I like English. --我喜欢英语。
---- Me too. --我也喜欢。
---- Have more wine? --再来点酒喝吗?
---- Not me. --我可不要了。
He is taller than I/me.
He is taller than I am.
a. 在介词but，except 后，有时可用主格代替宾格。
---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。
---- This is she. --我就是玛丽。
注意：在动词be 或to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。
I thought it was she. 我以为是她。（主格----主格）
I thought it to be her. （宾格----宾格）
I was taken to be she. 我被当成了她。 （主格----主格）
They took me to be her. 他们把我当成了她。 （宾格----宾格）
1）不定代词 anybody，everybody，nobody，anyone， someone， everyone，no one， 及whoever和person在正式场合使用时，可用he, his, him代替。
例如： Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来，是吗?
例如： Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。
1）单数人称代词并列作主语时，其顺序为：第二人称－> 第三人称 －> 第一人称，即you－> he/she; it -> I。
例如：You, he and I should return on time.
2） 复数人称代词作主语时，其顺序为：第一人称 －> 第二人称 －> 第三人称，即we －>you－>they。
It was I and John that made her angry. 是我和约翰惹她生气了。
如：I and you try to finish it. 我和你去弄好它。
John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.
物主代词有形容词性（my, your等）和名词性（mine, yours等）两种，形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的--'s属格结构。例如：
Jack's cap 意为The cap is Jack's。
His cap 意为The cap is his。
May I use your pen? Yours works better. 我可以用一用你的钢笔吗？你的比我的好用。
I love my motherland as much as you love yours. 我深爱我的祖国就像你深爱你的祖国一样。
Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.
The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你，属于你，属于你。
物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置，修饰一个名词，而必须用双重所有格。公式为：a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。例如：a friend of mine, each brother of his.
1） 1） 列表
数 单数 复数
人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
人称代词 I you he/she/it we you they
反身代词 myself yourself yourself/herself/himself ourselves yourselves themselves
a. 有些动词需有反身代词，如absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave等。例如：
We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。
Please help yourself to some fish. 请你随便吃点鱼。
b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词，如take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth等。例如：
I could not dress（myself）up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。
注：有些动词后不跟反身代词，如：get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。例如：
Please sit down. 请坐。
3） 用作表语，如结构be oneself。例如：
I am not myself today. 我今天不舒服。
The thing itself is not important. 事情本身并不重要。
5） 在不强调的情况下，but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如：No one but myself（me）is hurt.
（错） Myself drove the car.
（对） I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。
b. 但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中，第二个主语可用反身代词，特别是myself 作主语。例如：
Charles and myself saw it. 查尔斯和我看见了这件事。
1）相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的。例如：
It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other.
People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。
Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other. 吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。
说明：传统语法认为，相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other， 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中，两组词交替使用的实例也很多。例如：
He put all the books beside each other/one another. 他把所有书并列摆放起来。
Usually these small groups were independent of each other. 这些小团体通常是相互独立的。
The students borrowed each other's notes. 学生们互借笔记。
1） 指示代词分单数（this / that）和复数（these / those）两种形式，既可作限定词又可做代词。例如：
限定词 This girl is Mary. Those men are my teachers.
代词 This is Mary. Those are my teachers.
This is the way to do it. 这事儿就该这样做。
I like this better than that. 我喜欢这个甚至那个。
My point is this. 我的观点就是如此。
I don't say no to that. 我并未拒绝那个。
There is no fear of that. 那并不可怕。
（对）That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。（that作主语，指人）
（对）He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。（this作限定词）
（错）He is going to marry this. （this作宾语时不能指人）
（对）I bought this. 我买这个。（this指物，可作宾语）
（对） He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。
（对） He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。（those指人）
（错） He admired that who danced well. （that作宾语时不能指人）
（对） He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。（those指人）
（对） He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。（those指物）
指人： who, whom, whose
2） 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前，没有性和数的变化，除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较：
疑问代词：Whose are these books on the desk? 桌上的书是谁的？
What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion? 美国的领土扩张是朝哪个方向的？
限定词：Whose books are these on the desk? 桌上的书是谁的？
What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States?
说明1：无论是做疑问代词还是限定词，which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的，而which则指在一定的范围内。例如：
Which girls do you like best? 你喜欢哪几个姑娘？
What girls do you like best? 你喜欢什么样的姑娘？
Who（m）did you meet on the street? 你在街上遇到了谁？（作动词宾语）
Who（m） are you taking the book to? 你要把这书带给谁？（作介词宾语，置句首）
To whom did you speak on the campus? 你在校园里和谁讲话了？（作介词宾语，置介词后，不能用who取代。）
For what do most people live and work? 大部分人生活和工作的目的是什么？（旧文体）
What are you looking for? 你在找什么？（现代英语）
I can't make out what he is driving at. 我不知道他用意何在。
Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed? 你能告诉我床上的蓝衬衣是谁的吗？
Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.
The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。
2） 关系代词有主格，宾格和属格之分，并有指人与指物之分。在限定性定语从句中，that 可指人也可指物，见表：
指人 指物 指人或指物
主 格 who which that
宾 格 whom that that
属 格 whose of which/whose of which/whose
例如：This is the pencil whose point is broken. 这就是那枝折了尖的铅笔。（whose 指物，在限定性定语从句中作定语）
He came back for the book which he had forgotten. 他回来取他丢下的书。（which指物，在限定性定语从句中作宾语，可以省略）
He said he saw me there, which was a lie. 他说在那儿看到了我，纯属谎言。
I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew. 我过去懂拉丁语，现在大都忘了。
He's changed. He's not the man he was. 他变化很大，已不是过去的他了。
3.12 every , no, all, both, neither, nor
1）不定代词有all , both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone.等。
a. 除every 和no外不定代词既可用作名词，也可用作形容词。every和no在句中只能作定语。例如：
I have no idea about it. 我不知该咋办。
b. all 都，指三者以上。all 的主谓一致：all的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。例如：
All goes well. 一切进展得很好。
all 通常不与可数名词单数连用，如：不说 all the book，而说 the whole book。
但all可与表时间的可数名词单数连用，如 all day，all night，all the year；但习惯上不说 all hour，all century。
all还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用，如 all China，all the city，all my life，all the way
a. both 与复数动词连用，但 both… and…可与单数名词连用。
b. both, all 都可作同位语，其位置在行为动词前， be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态动词后面的实义动词省去，则位于助动词或情态动词之前。例如：
Who can speak Japanese? 谁能讲日本话？
We both（all）can. 我们都不会。
b. 作定语与单数名词连用，但neither… nor 用作并列连词，可与复数名词连用。其谓语采用就近原则。
She can't sing，neither（can）he. 她不会唱歌，他也不会。
5）neither 与nor 的比较
a. 如前句是否定式从句，则主句用neither，而不用 nor。例如：
If you don't do it，neither should I. 如果你不干，我也不干。
He can't sing，nor dance，nor skate. 他不会唱歌，不会跳舞，也不会滑冰。
3.13 none, few, some, any, one, ones
一、 none 无
1） none作主语，多与of 构成短语 none of。 在答语中，none可单独使用。例如：
Are there any pictures on the wall? 墙上有画吗？
It is none of your business. 闲事莫管。
2） 当做“某一”解时，也可与单数名词连用。（= a certain）
You will be sorry for this some day. 总有一天，你会为此后悔的。
A certain （some） person has seen you break the rule. 有些人不同意你的看法。
Would you like句式中，表委婉请求或建议。例如：
Would you like some coffee? 喝咖啡吗？
If you need some help，let me know. 需要帮助，跟我说。
Some students haven't been there before. 有些学生没去过那儿。
I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years. 这些年我没有收到一些老朋友的信。
1） any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。
Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说，你可任读一本。
Have you bought any rulers? 买尺了吗？
Yes, I 've bought some. 买了，买了几把。
3.14 one，that 和it
one表示泛指，that和it 表示特指。that与所指名词为同类，但不是同一个，而it 与所指名词为同一个。例如：
I can't find my hat. I think I must buy one.（不定）我找不到我的帽子了。我想我该去买一顶。
The hat you bought is bigger than that I bought.（同类但不同个）你买的那顶帽子比我买的大。
I can't find my hat. I don' t know where I put it.（ 同一物）我找不到我的帽子。我不知道我把它放在哪了。
3.15 one/another/the other
one… the other 只有两个
some… the others 有三个以上
others = other people/things
the others = the rest 剩余的全部
2） 一定范围内两人（物），一个用one，另一个用the other。
3） 一定范围内三者，一个用one，另一个用one （another），第三个可用the other，a third。
4） 一定范围内，除去一部分人/物，剩余的全部用the others。
He is one of the students who help me.
He is the one of the students who helps me. 他是帮我的学生之一。
第一句定语从句与the students 一致。
第二句定语从句与the one 一致。
3.17 anyone/any one；no one/none；every/each
1．anyone 和 any one
2．no one 和none
a） none 后跟of短语，既可指人又可指物，而no one只单独使用，只指人。
b） none 作主语，谓语动词用单，复数均可，而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数。例如：
None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。
---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗?
---- No one.--没有。
1） every 强调全体的概念， each强调个体概念。例如：
Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。
Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。
2） every 指三个以上的人或物（含三个），each指两个以上的人或物 （含两个）。
3） every 只作形容词，不可单独使用。each可作代词或形容词。例如：
Every boy has to take one. 每个男孩必须取一个。
Each boy has to take one.
Each of the boys has to take one.
5） every 有反复重复的意思，如 every two weeks等； each没有。
6） every 与not 连用，表示部分否定； each 和not连用表示全部否定。例如：
Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。
Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。
3.18 both, either, neither, all, any, none
1） both （两者都），either（两者中任何一个），neither （两者都不）。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。例如：
Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。
Both the boys are clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。
Either of the two boys is clever.
There are flowers on both sides of the street. 路边长满了野花。
There are flowers on either side of the street.
3） all （所有的，全部的人或物），any （任何一个）， none （都不）。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。例如：
All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。
I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。
I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。
All of the students are there. 所有的学生都在那。
All （of） the milk is there. 所有的牛奶都在那。
3.19 many, much
Many，much都意为“许多”， many + 可数名词，much + 不可数名词。例如：
How many people are there at the meeting? 多少人出席了会议。
How much time has we left? 还剩多少时间？
Many of the workers were at the meeting.许多工人在开会。
Much of the time was spent on learning.学习上化了许多时间。
3.20 few, little, a few, a little
（a） few + 可数名词, （a） little + 不可数名词
a few / a little 为肯定含义，还有一点
few / little 为否定含义，没有多少了。例如：
He has a few friends. 他有几个朋友。
He has few friends. 他几乎没有朋友。
We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。
There is little time left. 几乎没剩下什么时间了。
固定搭配：only a few （=few） not a few （=many） quite a few （=many） many a （=many）。例如：
Many books were sold.
Many a book was sold. 卖出了许多书。
Although he 's wealthy，he spends___ on clothes.
A. little B. few C. a little D. a few
答案： A. spend所指的是钱，不可数，只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句，由句意知后句为否定含义，因此应用little表示几乎不。
1.There are several pretty girls standing under the tree, but ______ are known to me.
a. neither b. none c. no one d. all
2.In one year rats eat 40 to 50 times ______ weight.
a. its b. and c. their d. theirs
3.You’d better continue to use the same spelling of your name as ______ you used in your application.
a. one b. the one c. any d. some one
4.The little baby was left alone, with ______ to look after it.
a. someone b. anyone c. not one d. no one
5.John can play chess better than ______ else.
a. the one b. no one c. any one d. another
6.The weight of something is another way of describing the amount of force exerted on ______ by gravity.
a. it b. them c. that d. one
7.It is one thing to enjoy listening to good music, but it is quite ______ to perform skillfully yourself.
a. other b. another c. some d. any
8.Children should be taught how to get along with ______.
a. another b. other c. others d. any other
9.The poor man lived on wild berries and roots because they had ______ to eat.
a. nothing else b. anything else c. something other d. nothing other
10.I go to the cinema ______ day, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays.
a. each other b. every other c. this and the other d. all other
11.One of the properties of light is ______ traveling in wave form as it goes from one place to another.
a. it b. it’s c. its d. their
12.______ in the world has been asked to do his duty for the human society.
a. Each of the tramps b. Every of the tramps c. The each tramp d. The every tramp
13.In some restaurants, food and service are worse than ______ used to be.
a. they b. it c. them d. that
14.Let the porter take all the baggage out and put ______ in the lobby.
a.it b. they c. them d. its
15.Everyone who comes to the party is given a wooden apple with _____ own names cut in it as a souvenir.
a. his b. her c. their d. our
16.Everybody in the class must give in ______ exercise book within the given time.
a. their b. our c. his d. her
17.During the journey, the boys and girls entertained ______ with songs and games.
a. themselves b. theirselves c. himself d. itself
18.You’d better buy ______ some fruits when you go on a trip.
a. youself b. myself c. yourself d. you
19.The boys in this town like to bully ______.
a. one another b. one and other c. each other d. one and the other
20.One common family name is Black,______ is Anderson.
a. another b. the other c. others d. none other
21.I have two novels: one of the two is “Gone with the Wind’, and ______ is “the Tale of Two Cities’.
a. another b. other c. none other d. the other
22.All girls wear beautiful clothes. Some are dressed in red;______ in green.
a. other b. another c. others d. none other
23.She can’t seem to help herself. And ______ can help her, either.
a. none else b. no one else c. not any d. somebody else
24.Children can usually dress ______ by the age of five.
a. him b. them c. hiself d. themselves
25.The gold watch had belonged to me for years, but the police refused to believe it was ______.
a. me b. my c. mine d. I’s
26.Mother would not let Mary and ______ attend the hockey game.
a. I b. my c. me d. we
27.In a news conference this afternoon, the university announced that ______ intends to make several important changes in next year’s budget.
a. he b. it c. she d. they
28.______ but a fool can make such a mistake.
a. Everyone b. No other c. Not all d. None
29.The poem by Browning is so observed that I cannot grasp ______ meaning.
a. its b. it’s c. their d. that
30.The mayor felt that the police, in spite of the reports, had done ______ best.
a. its b. their c. his d. our
31.I haven’t read ______ of the last four chapters, so I know little about them.
a. anything b. any c. some d. something
32.A pretty face may win friends but it takes character and personality to hold ______.
a. it b. them c. that d. one
33.In the discussion, one speaker held that, since we live in a money-oriented society, the average individual cares little about solving ______.
a. anyone else’s problems b. anyone’s else problems
b. anyone else problems d. problems of anyone else
34.I don’t know whether small oranges are sweeter than big ______.
a. those b. ones c. one d. that
35.‘How much water is left in the bottle?’ ‘______’
a. Nothing b. None c. Not some d. Not one
36.It took two of them to do the work that ______ of us could do.
a. someone b. anyone c. any one d. everyone
37.He has five children, and ______ of them is good at painting.
a. everyone b. everybody d. every one d. every
38.I have three brothers,______ are in Beijing.
a. no one of them b. neither of them c. some of them d. none of them
39.Some of my students study a lot,______ just don’t care.
a. anothers b. the other c. some other d. others
40.As a matter of fact, Saudi Arabia’s oil reserves are second only to ______.
a. Kuweit b. that of Kuweit c. Kuweits’s d. those of Kuweit
41.This book of _______ used to be one of the best sellers in the shop.
a. his b. him c. that man d. this
42.We should always keep ______ well-informed of the changing information.
a. us b. ours c. ourselves d. we
43.The climate here is often said to be similar to ______.
a. Japan b. one of Japan c. that of Japan d. in Japan
44.Hunted by constant fear of arrest, the thief ______ to the police at last.
a. gave it up b. gave up himself c. gave him up d. gave himself up
45.______ of the boys in the class who have passed the test is to receive certificates.
a. Every b. Every one c. Any d. Anyone
46.Do you believe that she has blamed us for the accident, especially ______?
a. you and me b. you and I c. I and you d. me and you
47.Of those who graduated with ______,Ellen is the only one who has found a good job.
a. Betty and he b. he and Betty c. Betty and him d. Him and Betty
48.He is surprised by ______ having to pay for the accident.
a. you b. yours c. your d. your’s
49.This is a left hand glove and that is ______.
a. other b. the other one c. other one d. another
50.Add those examples to ______ you have already noted.
a. one b. the one c. one d. the ones
51.Have you got a ticket? Yes, I’ve got ______.
a. it b. the one c. one d. the ones
52.There’s the doorbell; I hope ______ Tom.
a. its b. it’s c. is d. he’s
53.It’s cheaper to buy old furniture than to have new ______ made.
a. one b. ones c. furniture d. furnitures
54.Those of us who are over fifty years old should get ______ blood pressure checked regularly.
a. their b. their’s c. our d. ours
55.Every man and woman eighteen years of age or older is eligible to vote for the candidate of ______.
a. his choice b. their choice c. the choice of him d. the choice of theirs
56.I bite my nails. I must break ______.
a. the habit of me b. the habit with myself c. myself of the habit d. of the habit myself
57.______ of them shared my opinions, so we have ______ in common to discuss.
a. Nobody/a little b. Few/little c. A few/little d. None/many
58.When science, business and art learn something of ______ methods and goals, the world will have come closer to cultural harmony.
a. one and the other’s b. each and the other’s
c. one another’s d. the one’s and the other’s
59.The boy is ______ of a musician.
a. anyone b. anything c. someone d. something
60.For ______ interested in nature, the club offers hikes and overnight camping each week during the summer.
a. them b. whom c. themselves d. those
61.The use of radar as well as the two-way radio ______ for the police to intercept most speeders.
a. make it possible b. makes it possible c. makes possible d. make it a possibility
62.The family never agree about ______ shares of the property.
a. her b. its c. their d. his
63.The flock of geese was flying through the sky in perfect formation following ______ leader.
a. its b. their c. his d. her
64.When Jonathan went to Spain with his sister, he bought a leather coat for her and another for ______.
a. him b. himself c. he d. his
65.Those of us who wear glasses should have ______ eyes examined at regular intervals.
a. their b. our c. his d. her
66.Frank admired his friends Tom and David. He imitated ______.
a. theirs every action b. every action of theirs c. every of their action d. every action of their one
67.My desk is ______.
a. between his b. between his one c. beside his one d. beside his
68.“May I speak to Iris?”
“This is ______ speaking.”
a. she b. hers’s c. hers d. her
69.Mary is the landlady ______.
a. from who we rent the flat b. from whom we rent the flat
c. whom we rent the flat d. who we rent the flat
70.Give the message to ______ is at the table.
a. whomever b. whosever c. whatever d. whoever
71.It was through experimentation ______ people found out he behavior of electricity.
a. that b. which c. / d. the
72.______ Nat Turner who led a revolt against slavery in Virginia in 1831.
a. Where was b. It was c. He was d. it was him
73.It wasn’t ______ telephoned me.
a. he whom b. him whom c. he who d . his who
74.It was ______ he bought the magazine.
a. from a second-hand store where b. a second-hand store in which
b. in a second-hand store that d. in a second-hand store where
75.It was ______ late in the evening that the students returned to the dormitories.
a. till b. before c. when d. not until
76.It was ______ that he did not go to Mount Lao with us.
a. because he was ill b. as he was ill
c. since he was ill d. though he was ill
77.It was ______ that he joined the evening party.
a. finding Comrade Li b. found Comrade Li c. to find Comrade Li d. find Comrade Li
78.Was it ______ she agreed to help?
a. very reluctantly so that b. very reluctantly that
c. so reluctantly that d. very reluctantly when
79.______ she gave the postcards to?
a. Whom it was that b. Who it was that c. Who was it that d. It was who that
80.______ the camel can go for three days without food or drink?
a. That it is why b. That is it why c. Why it is that d. Why is it that
1 B 19 A 37 C 55 A 73 C
2 C 20 A 38 D 56 C 74 C
3 B 21 D 39 D 57 B 75 D
4 D 22 C 40 D 58 C 76 A
5 C 23 B 41 A 59 D 77 C
6 A 24 D 42 C 60 D 78 B
7 B 25 C 43 C 61 B 79 C
8 C 26 C 44 D 62 C 80 D
9 A 27 B 45 B 63 A 81
10 B 28 D 46 A 64 B 82
11 C 29 A 47 C 65 B 83
12 A 30 B 48 C 66 B 84
13 A 31 B 49 B 67 D 85
14 C 32 B 50 D 68 A 86
15 A 33 A 51 B 69 B 87
16 A 34 B 52 B 70 D 88
17 A 35 B 53 C 71 A 89
18 C 36 C 54 C 72 B 90
（错） He is an ill man.
（对） The man is ill.
（错） She is an afraid girl.
（对） The girl is afraid.
这类词还有： well，unwell，ill，faint，afraid，alike，alive，alone，asleep，awake 等。
1） 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly，deadly，lovely，lonely，likely，lively，ugly，brotherly，仍为形容词。
改错： （错） She sang lovely.
（错） He spoke to me very friendly.
（对） Her singing was lovely.
（对） He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
The Times is a weekly paper. 《时代周刊》为周刊。
The Times is published weekly. 《时代周刊》每周发行一期。
1） 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人，与谓语动词的复数连接，如the dead，the living，the rich，the poor，the blind，the hungry等。例如：
The poor are losing hope. 穷人行将失去希望。
2） 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体，与动词的复数连用，如the British，the English，the French，the Chinese等。例如：
The English have wonderful sense of humor. 英国人颇有幽默感。
a small round table/ a tall gray building/ a dirty old brown shirt/ a famous German medical school/ an expensive Japanese sports car
1） Tony is going camping with ___ boys.
A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two
2） One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.
A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old
3） ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?
---- It was great. We visited some friends，and spent the ___days at the seaside.
A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last
答案：B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词；如果几个形容词的重要性差不多，音节少的形容词在前，音节多的方在后，在不能确定时，可参照：限定词+数量词（序数词在前，基数词在后）+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词，如those + three + beautiful + large + square +old + brown + wood + table。
We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.我们清楚地看到前面有奇怪的光。
He speaks English well. 他英语说得好。
Please write slowly and carefully. 请写得慢一些，仔细一些
改错：（错） I very like English.
（对） I like English very much.
I don't know him well enough. 他我不熟悉。
There is enough food for everyone to eat.有足够的食物供每个人吃。
There is food enough for everyone to eat.
He is sitting close to me. 他就坐在我边上。
Watch him closely. 盯着他。
2） late 与lately
You have come too late. 你来得太晚了。
What have you been doing lately? 近来好吗？
He pushed the stick deep into the mud.他把棍子深深插进泥里。
Even father was deeply moved by the film.老爸也被电影深深打动了。
The plane was flying high. 这架飞机飞得很高。
I think highly of your opinion. 你的看法很有道理。
He opened the door wide. 他把门开得大大的。
English is widely used in the world.英语在世界范围内广泛使用。
You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.无论什么时候，我这饭铺免费对你开放。
You may speak freely; say what you like.你可以畅所欲言，想说什么就说什么。
构成法 原级 比较级 最高级
一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est tall taller tallest
以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数以- le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st nice nicer nicest
以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单音节词，双写结尾的辅音字母，再加-er,-est big bigger biggest
“以辅音字母+y”结尾的双音节词，改y为i，再加-er，-est busy busier busiest
少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未尾加-er,-est clever/narrow cleverer/ narrower cleverest/ narrowest
其他双音节词和多音节词，在前面加more，most来构成比较级和最高级 important/ easily more important/ more easily most important/ most easily
原级 比较级 最高级
good better best
well（健康的） worse worst
old older/elder oldest/eldest
much/many more most
little less least
far farther/further farthest/furthest
4.8. as + 形容词或副词原级 + as
He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。
2）当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式：as +形容词+ a +单数名词/ as + many/much +名词。例如：
This is as good an example as the other is. 这个例子和另外一个一样好。
I can carry as much paper as you can. 你能搬多少纸，我也能。
This room is twice as big as that one. 这房间的面积是那间的两倍。
Your room is the same size as mine. 你的房间和我的一样大。
4）倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ the … + of。例如：
This bridge is three times as long as that one. 这座桥的长度是那座的三倍。
This bridge is three times the length of that one.
Your room is twice as large as mine. 你的房间是我的两倍大。
Your room is twice the size of mine.
4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than 。例如：
You are taller than I. 你比我高。
They lights in your room are brighter than those in mine.你房间的那些灯比我房间里的亮。
（错） He is more cleverer than his brother.
（对） He is more clever than his brother.
（对） He is clever than his brother.
（错） China is larger than any country in Asia.
（对） China is larger than any other countries in Asia.
The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.
It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.
比较：Which is larger, Canada or Australia?
Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?
She is taller than her two sisters.
She is the taller of the two sisters.
1）a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。
1）---- Are you feeling ____?
---- Yes，I'm fine now.
A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better
答案：B. any 可修饰比较级，quite修饰原级，well的比较级为better.
2）The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.
A. more B. much more C. much D. more much
3）If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.
A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time
4.11 many, old 和 far
1） 如果后接名词时，much more +不可数名词，many more +可数名词复数。
2） old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。elder，eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。例如：
My elder brother is an engineer. 我哥哥是个工程师。
Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 玛丽是三姐妹中最大的。
3） far 有两种比较级，farther，further。一般father 表示距离，further表示进一步。例如：
I have nothing further to say. 我没什么要说了。
4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围
The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 撒哈拉沙漠是世界上最大的沙漠。
It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 这是个很重要的问题。
（错） Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.
（对） Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.
2） 下列词可修饰最高级，by far, far, much, mostly, almost。例如：
This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 这帽子差不多是最大的了。
This is the very best.
This is much the best.
Africa is the second largest continent.非洲是第二大洲。
Mike is the most intelligent in his class. 马克是班上最聪明的。
Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.
4） “否定词语+比较级”，“否定词语+ so… as”结构也可以表示最高级含义。例如：
Nothing is so easy as this. 没比这更简单的了。
=Nothing is easier than this.
=This is the easiest thing.
1） the more…the more… 越……就越……。例如：
The harder you work，the greater progress you'll make. 越努力，进步越大。
2） more B than A=less A than B 与其说A不如说B。例如：
He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 他工作时，与其说是反应慢不如说是懒。
3） no more… than… 与……一样……，不比……多。例如：
The officials could see no more than the Emperor. 官员们看到的和皇帝一样多。
no less… than… 与……一样……。例如：
He is no less diligent than you. 他和你一样勤勉。
4） more than 不只是，非常。例如：
She is more than kind to us all. 她对我们非常热心。
1）The weather in China is different from____.
A. in America B. one in America C. America
D. that in America
2）After the new technique was introduced，the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.
A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as
答案C. 此句意为“这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍”。表示倍数用“倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象”的句型。所以此句答案为C。
1. The modern machine proved ______ in heart surgery.
a. high valuable b. highly valuable c. valuable high d. valuable highly
2. Mr. Johnson and his ______ daughter do not always understand each other.
a. older b. the oldest c. eldest d. the eldest
3. They ______ thought that the truth would be finally discovered.
a. little b. not c. small d. bit
4. They hardly believe that the apartment which costs them $ 4,000 is ______.
a. so small b. such little c. so little d. such small
5. If a claim is kept ______, it is more likely to be recognized.
a. live b. lived c. alive d. living
6. On his way to school he met ______, so he sent him to hospital.
a. very ill man b. much sick man c. serious ill man d. very sick man
7. She was operated a month ago but now she was ______.
a. very good b. very well c. healthy d. good conditioned
8. What I would do is to go ______.
a. really quietly somewhere b. somewhere quietly really
c. really quiet somewhere d. somewhere really quiet
9. The chairman asked ______ to write their questions on a piece of paper and send them to the front.
a. the present members b. the members presently
c. the members present d. the presently members
10. The price was very reasonable; I would gladly have paid ______ he asked.
a. three times much as b. three times as many as
c. as three times much as d. three times as much as
11. The trousers are ______, but Tom does not care a bit.
a. too a little small b. a little too small c. a too little small d. a small too little
12. She wore a dress to the party that was far more attractive than ______.
a. other girls b. that of other girls c. the other girls d. those of other girls
13. he can play tennis better than ______ in the class.
a. any boys b. any other boy c. any boy d. any other
14. Kasia is taking her ______ tour of the shops in search of bargains.
a. daily b. day c. day time d. night
15. ______ the child expresses his interest in an activity, the stronger it will become.
a. The more frequent b. The frequenter c. The more frequently d. the frequentlier
16. We’d better wait _______ , Peter and Tom will come very soon.
a. a little longer b. more longer c. long d. as longer
17. although the medicine tastes ______, it seems to help my condition.
a. bad b. badly c. too much bad d. too badly
18. When she got her first month salary, Diana bought herself ______ dress.
a. a cotton , blue …expensive b. an expensive … blue, cotton
c. a blue, expensive … cotton d. a cotton, expensive… blue
19. The doctors have tried ______ to save the life of the wounded soldier.
a. everything possible humanly b. humanly everything possible
c. everything humanly possible d. humanly possible everything
20. I was worried very much because I’ll miss my flight if the bus arrives ______.
a. lately b. late c. latter d. more later
21. The noise outside was ______ his speech was hardly audible.
a. too irritating that b. so irritating so c. so irritating that d. so irritating enough that
22. The harder the shrub is to grow, ______.
a. the more higher price it b. the higher price it is
c. the higher the price is d. the higher is the price
23. The photographs of Mars taken by satellite are ______ taken from the earth.
a. clearest than those b. clearer than that
c. much clear than those d. much clearer than those
24. ______ anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself.
a. Three-minute call b. A three-minutes call
c. A three-minute call d. A three-minutes-call
25. We arrived ______ Professor Baker had already called the roll.
a. so lately that b. as late that c. so later that d. so late that
26. It is ______ that I would like to go to the beach.
a. so nice weather b. such nice weather c. so nice a weather d. such a nice weather
27. Her little car isn’t ______ to seat more than two people comfortably.
a. big enough b. enough big c. so big enough d. big as enough
28. His score on the exam was ______ to qualify him for a graduate program.
a. too good b. well enough c. as high as d. good enough
29. The plane is scheduled to arrive ______ because of bad weather.
a. lately b. late c. later d. latest
30. There are ______ that I can’t finish them.
a. so long assignments b. such long assignments
c. long assignments d. so very long assignments
31. Bats find their way by squeaking ______ and guiding themselves by echoes.
a. very fast b. very fastly c. much faster d. most fastly
32. Your application will be considered ______ your file is completed.
a. as quickly as b. as soon as c. as fast as d. as early as
33. This dress is prettier, but it costs ______ that one.
a. twice more than b. twice as much as c. as much twice as d. twice so much as
34. A new shopping center on the north side will have ______.
a. five hundred more than shops b. as more than five hundred shops
c. five hundred shops more than d. more than five hundred shops
35. The more you study during the semester, ______ you have to study the week before exams.
a. the less b. the lesser c. less d. the little
36. To answer accurately is more important than ______.
a. a quick finish b. to finish quickly c. finishing quickly d. you finish quickly
37. When a body enters the earth’s atmosphere, it travels ______.
a. in a rapid manner b. fastly c. with great speed d. very rapidly
38. The salary of a taxi driver is much higher _______.
a. in comparison with the salary of a teacher b. than a teacher
c. than that of a teacher d. to compare as a teacher
39. Frost occurs in valleys and on low grounds ______ on adjacent hills.
a. more frequently as b. as frequently than
c. more frequently than d. frequently than
40. She can speak _______ in front of Mack, but she can’t eat ______ in his restaurant.
a. free, free b. free, freely c. freely, free d. freely, freely
41. You will have to practice ______ times before you can do it.
a. may more b. more several c. more often d. more many
42. I have been going to Shanghai ______ than I used to.
a. lesser b. less c. fewer d. less often
43. Tuition at American university runs ______ one thousand dollars a semester.
a. so high as b. as high to c. as high as d. as higher than
44. I enjoy the concert last night; they played ______ beautiful music.
a. such b. such a c. so d. so a
45. Several day ______, I saw the man again on the street.
a. late b. later c. latter d. last
46. When electricity was first invented, people refused to believe such a thing ______.
a. impossible b. possibly c. possible d. impossibly
47. The reason why so many people sit before the television tonight is that there will be a ______ show.
a. living b. live c. alive d. lived
48. When the three boys met one another, they found they looked very much ______. Then they knew they were triplet.
a. like b. alike c. likely d. liked
49. The doctor assured the patient that there was ______ with her, but she could not help worrying.
a. seriously wrong nothing b. nothing serious wrong
c. nothing seriously wrong d. serious nothing wrong
50. If you live in Wuhan one day and in Shenyang the next, you ______ the change in temperature.
a. are certainly to feel b. certainly feel c. are to feel certainly d. are certain to feel
51. As a safety precaution, all drivers carry only enough money to make change for ______.
a. a bill of ten-dollar b. a ten-dollars bill
c. a ten-dollar bill d. a tens-dollar bill
52. When I spent holidays Europe, I bought _____ vases.
a. two lovely big old German b. two lovely old big German
c. two German big old lovely d. lovely big two old German
53. Everyone will agree that food in the south is as good as ______ in the country.
a. other region b. any other region c. that of any region d. that of any other region
54. Stars are so far away that they are ______ spots of light when seen from the earth.
a. nothing more as b. anything more than
c. more than d. nothing more than
55. What deeply impressed his was that magnificent ______.
a. eight-century-old b. eight-centuries c. old-eight-centuries d. eight-century’s-old
56. _______ focus on cultural differences between Chinese and Western societies.
a. The below text and dialogues b. Below the text and dialogues
c. The text and dialogues below d. Text and dialogues the below
57. People will be able to fly from one planet to another in ______.
a. little nasty arrow-shaped tubes b. nasty little arrow-shaped tubes
c. arrow-shaped little nasty tubes d. arrow-shaped little nasty tubes
58. Beginning in the late 19th century, the _______ rise in the productivity of England was just ______ less than Germany and the U.S.
a. year…slightly b. yearly…slight c. yearly…slightly d. year…slightly
59. In Spain, officials estimate that ______ 75 percent of the current violent crime is drug related.
a. much as b. as much as c. as many as d. as great
60. You should spend ______ in the study of the various senses and uses of the common words.
a. much time as you can b. as time much as you can
c. time as many as you can d. as much time as you can
61. Professor Chen asked us to write ______ essay on individual differences in second language learning.
a. a no more than two-thousand-word b. a less two-thousand-words
c. a less than two-thousands-words d. a no more two than thousand word
62. Her voice is ______.
a. loud b. aloud c. loudly d. loudness
63. That so many advances have been made in ______ is the most valid argument for retaining the research unit.
a. such short time b. so a short time c. such a short time d. such short a time
64. ______ curriculum includes all experiences which the students may have within the environment of the school.
a. Broad speaking b. Speaking broadly c. Broadly speaking d. Broadly
65. Since taxi fare in the city may run ______ twenty dollars, I suggest that you take a bus.
a. as high as b. as expensive as c. so high that d. so expensive as
66. If negotiations for the new trade agreements take ______, critical food shortages will develop in several countries.
a. too much longer b. much too long c. the longest d. the longer
67.If he had followed the directions carefully in taking the medicine, he would have felt better ______.
a. much quicker b. more quick c. much quickly d. more quickly
68.Since he spent his childhood in France, Jack is able to converse in French ______.
a. rather good b. quite better c. fairly more d. rather well
69.Of the two cars that the Smiths have, the Plymouth is, without any question, ______.
a. the cheapest to run b. the cheaper to run c. cheaper d. more cheaper
70.With ______ three inches of rain falling in a six-month period, the farmers found it necessary to irrigate the land
a. less than b. little than c. fewer than d. less few than
71. On a small marble table in the center of her boudoir stands ______ vase.
a. a little exquisite antique brown Chinese porcelain
b. an exquisite little antique brown Chinese porcelain
c. an antique little exquisite brown Chinese porcelain
d. a Chinese antique little expensive brown porcelain
72.“When is Tom going to leave?”
“He is going to leave ______ this week.”
a. sometimes b. some time c. sometime d. somewhat
73.The librarian insists that Dana take ______ books from library before she returns the dictionary she borrowed last month.
a. no b. many c. not many d. no more
74.The facilities of the older hospital are ______ the new hospital.
a. as good or better than b. as good as or better as
c. as good as or better than d. as good as or better than those of
75.______ iron has relatively few economical uses.
a. Chemical pure b. Chemically pure c. Pure chemical d. Purely chemical
76.I walked 8 miles today. I never guessed that I could walk ______ far.
a. much b. that c. such d. as
77.They _____ to our proposal.
a. have not still responded b. have not responded still
c. have still not responded d. still have not responded
78.True hibernation takes place only among ______ animals.
a. whose blood is warm b. blood worm
c. warm-blooded d. they have warm blood
79.He works ______.
a. lone b. lonely c. alone d. lonesome
80.A _____ road goes ______ from our college to the center.
a. straight…straight b. straightly…straightly c. straight…straightly d. straightly…straight
1 B 19 C 37 D 55 A 73 D
2 C 20 B 38 C 56 C 74 D
3 A 21 C 39 C 57 B 75 B
4 A 22 C 40 C 58 C 76 B
5 C 23 D 41 A 59 B 77 D
6 D 24 C 42 D 60 D 78 C
7 B 25 D 43 C 61 A 79 C
8 D 26 B 44 A 62 A 80 A
9 C 27 A 45 B 63 C 81
10 D 28 D 46 C 64 C 82
11 B 29 B 47 B 65 A 83
12 D 30 B 48 B 66 B 84
13 B 31 A 49 C 67 D 85
14 A 32 B 50 D 68 D 86
15 C 33 B 51 C 69 C 87
16 A 34 D 52 A 70 A 88
17 A 35 A 53 D 71 B 89
18 C 36 B 54 D 72 C 90
China,Bill Clinton,Red Cross
名 普 可数名词
词 通 集体名词：表示若干个体组成的集合体，如：family,school,
词 不可数名词 物质名词：表示无法分为个体的实物，如：cotton,air,tea
1） 绝大多数在词尾加s。如： book,books;bag,bags;cup,cups;face,faces.
下列以o结尾的词加s构成复数：piano , photo ,radio ,zoo, bamboo ,kilo
man→men; woman→women; Englishman→Englishmen;foot→feet;
tooth→teeth; child→children; mouse→mice
A.含man或woman的复合名词，两部分都变为复数形式。如：two men teachers,
four women doctors
grown-ups 成年人，go-betweens 中间人
findings 调查结果， doings行为，surroundings环境，arms武器，fireworks
烟火，remains残余，thanks感谢，riches财富，ashes灰烬 ，stairs 楼梯
take pains下功夫,made preparations作准备，give regards to 问候
以s结尾的复数名词，只在词尾加“’”。如：students’ homework,a workers’ night
school 一所工人夜校，不以s结尾的复数名词，仍在词尾加“’s”。如：men’s clothes
男士衣服 children’s books 儿童读物
2） 如果一个事物为两个人共有，只在后一个名词的词尾加“’s”，如果不是共有，就要在两个名词的词尾分别加上“’s”。例如：Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克合住的房间 Tom’s and Mike’s rooms汤姆、迈克各自的房间
如：the tailor’s 裁缝店，the barber’s理发店，go to the doctor’s上诊所，
at my uncles在我叔叔家
4） 表示时间、距离、国家、城市等无生命的名词，可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”来表示 所有格。如：today’s newspaper,half an hour’s rest,two weeks’ work,ten minutes′walk,China’s population,Shanghai’s industry
the students of their school, the teachers of Grade 2
He is an old friend of my father’s. This is a picture of Mary’s.
1． He gained his _______by printing _______of famous writers
A.wealth; work B.wealths; works C.weaths;work D.wealth ;works
2.Many people agree that_______ knowledge of English is a must in ______
international trade today.
A.a; × B.the ; an C.the ;the D.×;the
门学问的掌握了解”可与不定冠词连用，这可称之为抽象名词具体化。类例如：a strong character 坚强的性格；a bright future 光明前途；a waste of time 浪费时间；a pressure on sb.对某人的压力；have a good time玩得痛快；He is a failure /a success as a leader 他当领导不行/很出色。抽象名词不与冠词连用是泛指一般概念、意义。如：what fun! fine weather ;common knowledge 常识；Knowledge begins with practice.foreign trade.因此international trade前不用冠词。
3.Oh, John _____you gave us !
A.How a great surprise B.How pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise D.What pleasant surprise
an advanced culture 一种先进文化；a great interest 极大的兴趣；do him a good kindness帮了他一个大忙。
4. She broke a _______ while she was washing up .
A.glass wine B.wine glass C.wine’s glass D.glass of wine 析：根据broke一词及四个选项，可确定空白处应选“酒杯”故可排除A、D；C不是表达“酒杯”的正确形式，只有B才是正确答案。英语中用名词作定语修饰名词的情况很多，这些作定语用的名词可表①分类意义②表时间、地点、称呼③表目的、手段、原料、来源、所属等意义。
① 例： woman driver ,telephone number ,school education ,research work ,coffee cup ,English teacher ,air pollution
② 例：book store ,winter sleep ,country life ,college student ,South China
③例：milk bottle ,steam boat ,goat skin ,stone wall ,gas station ,lunch room ,tooth brush
5.________terrible weather we’ve been having these days!
A.What B.What a C.How D.How a
6.Shortly after the accident ,two _______police were sent to the spot to keep order .
A.dozens of B.dozens C.dozens’ of D.dozen
析： 正确答案是D。dozen, score ,hundred, thousand ,million等名词前面有数词或many ,several等词，且表示具体数目时，这些名词一般不用复数形式，但在下列短语中却加S，并与of连用:dozens of (许多的)，scores of (好几十的)，hundreds of (成百的)，thousands of (上千的)，millions of （数百万的）
7.I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible .Just have a little ______.
A.wait B.time C.patience D.rest
8.If by any chance someone comes to see me ,ask them to leave a _________.
A.message B.letter C.sentence D.notice
1._________from Beijing to London!
A.How long way it is B.What a long way is it C.How long way is it D.What a long way it is
2.We’ve worked out the plan ,and now we must put it into________.
A.fact B.practice C.reality D.deed
3.Electrcity , like other forms of ________ ,has greatly increased in price.
A.pressure B.force C.strength D.energy
4．That fellow is clever ; he has ___________.
A.brain B.a brain C.the brain D.brains
5.Julie went to the ________ to buy a pair of shoes.
A.shoes store B.shoe’s store C.shoe store D.shoes’ store
6.Those ______ took lots of ______ in the Summer Palace.
A.Germen; photoes B.Germen; photos
C.Germans; photos D.Germans; photoes
7.All possible means __________ to save the hero.
A.has tried B.have tried C.has been tried D.have been tried
8.--Whose car is it ?
A.Tom and Mary B.Tom’s and Mary’s
C.Tom’s and Mary D.Tom and Mary’s
9.There are 5____ in th fields.
A.heads of cattles B.heads of cattle
C.head of cattles D.head of cattle
10.He is the very thief the police ________ looking for .
A.is B.are C.has D.have
11.All but Jack __________ here just now .
A.is B.are C.was D.were
12.He knows almost everything .So we say he is a man of many _________.
A.knowleges B.presents C.gifts D.rewards
13.Carelessness is the usual __________ of fire.
A.way B.excuse C.cause D.reason
14.The girl is quite ________to her mother now .
A.a help B.helps C.help D.helpness
15._______is coming to give us a lecture .
A.A manager and an expert B.A manager and expert
C.Manager and expert D.Manager and an expert
16.Most of the bridges over the river are made of __________.
A.stone B.the stone C.a stone D.the stones
17.If you hurt her _________ ,you should apologize.
A.feelings B.feel C.feels D.feeling
18.I’ll go and call at __________ right after school.
A.the doctor B.the Smiths C.Smith D.my uncle’s
19.The shop will be closed during_________.
A.repairs B.a repair C.repair D.repairing
20.The________we saw yesterday come out to the farm once in a while.
A.mouse B.deer C.dog D.cow
21.My brother didn’t find army life to his __________.
A.like B.taste C.quality D.favour
22.Though they hadn’t met for long ,he recognized her ___________.
A.voice B.noise C.sound D.laughter
23.Learning that they were to have a picnic,the children were in _______.
A.the high spirit B.high spirits
C.a high spirit D.high spirit
24.After _______ silence ,they began to write letters to each other .
A.three-year B.a three-year C.three years D.three yearss
25.If these trousers are too big ,buy a smaller__________.
A.copy B.pair C.piece D.set
26.That daughter of Jack’s is ______.
A.a good fun B.good runs C.good fun D.good funny
27._______will make a trip around the world during the coming Christmas.(93年上海高考题)
A.The Evenses’ B.The Evens’ C.The Evenses D.The Evens
28.He is one of the most successful_______ in the city.
A.newspaper’s writer B.newspaper writers
C.nesapapers’ writer D.newspaper writer
29.--Where is your brother?
A.Mr Green’s B.Greens C.the Mr Green’s D.the Greens
30.--Are you _______ ,Mr Black?
--Yes ,I speak______.
A.English ; the English language B.the English ; English
C.an Englishman; on English language D.an English ; English
1－5 D B D D C 6－10 C D D D B
11－15 D C C A B 16－20 A A D A B
21－25 B A B B B 26－30 C C B A A
1)单复数形式相同 Chinese→ Chinese; Japanese→ Japanese; deer→ deer; sheep→ sheep
2)有些词虽然是以s结尾，但单复数形式相同 means; crossroads ; works; remains
man→ men; woman →women; Englishman →Englishmen; Englishwoman→ Englishwomen; goose →geese; foot→ feet; tooth →teeth 注：以+man或woman构成的名词，是将man中的a改为e，构成其复数形式，如：policeman →policemen; policewoman → policewomen；但German一词不是由Ger+man构成的名词，它是一个原形词，其复数形式为Germans，是在词尾加s构成。
4). 特殊形式 child →children; ox →oxen; mouse →mice
1)将复合名词中的主体名词变为复数形式lookers-on( 旁观者)； editors-in-chief(总编辑); daughters-in-law;
2)如果没有主体名词，就在最后一个词的词尾加s grown-ups（成年人）；draw-backs（缺陷）; go-betweens（中间人）
2)有些名词的单复数形式表达不同的含义 snow雪, snows积雪; two people两个人，two peoples两个民族
3)glass一词作 “玻璃”解时，为物质名词，不可数The cup is made of glass. 作 “玻璃杯”解时，则为个体名词，可数；如I bought ten glasses this morning. 作 “眼镜”解时，须用复数形式glasses.如: a man with thick glasses
4)paper一词作“纸”解时，不可数write on paper; 作“报纸”“文件”“考卷”解时，则可数,如: hand in your test papers
5)物质名词表示数量时，一般用表示数量的短语来表示。of之前的数量名词，要根据情况使用单数或复数形式 a cup of tea; four pieces of bread; a cake of soap
time(时间)→times( 时代，次，倍数) work(工作)→ works( 著作，工厂，工事)
air(空气) →airs( 气派，架子,姿态 ) look(看)→looks(容貌)
custom(习惯) →customs(海关) wood(木柴) →woods(树林)
glass(玻璃)→glasses(眼镜,玻璃杯) good(利益)→ goods(货物)
green(绿色)→greens(青菜) cloth(布) →clothes(衣服)
compass(指南针)→compasses(圆规) manner(态度) →manners(礼貌,习俗)
paper(纸)→ papers(考卷,文件) sand(沙子) →sands(沙滩)
The wangs are our good neighbors.王家是我们的好邻居
There are three Smiths in our group.我们小组有三个姓smith的。
8)只用作单数的复数形式的名词有科学名词：physics; mathematics; politics 游戏名词:bowls(滚木球戏) 专有名词：the United States; Niagara Falls 其它名词：news; falls.
①某些其它的名词也用复数形式goods（货物）; greens（青菜）; thanks（谢谢）; riches财富; wages工资; earnings收入; savings存款; doings所作所为; winnings赢得物
②有些名词形似单数，但实为复数，如：police; cattle.不说：a police; a cattle但可以说：a policeman或a policewoman; a head of cattle
③英文钱币中便士penny有两个复数形式，其中pence是与数字连用时表示一定数量的钱，而pennies是指一个个的硬币，如Please give me five pennies.应译为请给我五个一便士的硬币
1.名词的所有格一般用于有生命的名词， 如果该名词为单数，在词尾上加上“’s”，即构成其所有格。“’s”含有“的”字之意。如：Tom’s bike。以“s”结尾的专有名词，在词尾可加“’s”“或 “’”，构成其所有格。如：Engles’s (Engles’) works
2.以s结尾的复数名词，在词尾加“’ ”构成其所有格，如：a works’ school建筑工程学校
3.不以s结尾的复数名词，在词尾加“’s ”构成其所有格， 如：Women’s Day
4.复合名词在末一个词的词尾上加“’s”构成其所有格，如：the editor-in-chief’s office总编辑室
5.如果一个事物为两个人所有，在后一个名词的词尾加“’s”如果不是共有，在两个名词的词尾都要加“’s”，如：Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和麦克的房间（共有）；Tom’s and Mike’s books汤姆的书和麦克的书（不共有）。
6.表示店铺或某人的家时，常在名词所有格之后省去shop；house或home等词，如：the tailor’s成衣店；the barber’s理发店；at my aunt’s在我姑姑家。
7.表示无生命的名词，一般用of短语来表示所有关系，该短语位于其修饰的名词之后，如：the teachers of our school.但表示时间﹑距离﹑国家﹑城市的无生命名词，可以在词尾加“’s”或“’”表示所有格，如：today’s papers, ten minutes’ walk。
8. 表示有生命的名词也可以用of短语表示所有关系，而且当该名词带有较长的定语时，就只能用of短语来表示所有关系，如：the teacher of the boys who are playing football on the playground.
9.of短语+所有格的用法：在表示所属物的名词前如有不定冠词、数词、不定代词或指示代词时，常用of短语+所有格这一结构表示所属关系，如：an old friend of my uncle’s
如：He is an old friend of my uncle着重说明的是“我叔叔的”老朋友，不是别人的。
He is an old friend of my uncle’s着重说明的是我叔叔有好几位老朋友，他只是其中的一位。
如：One of my friends’ house was burned down last night.(显得不自然)
The house of one of my friends was burned down last night.(显得自然通顺)
at arm’s length保持一定距离 at his finger’s ends对某事熟知within a stone’s throw离得很近 out of harm’s way安全的地方
1.表材料的名词作定语，说明被修饰的名词是什么原料制成的如：stone figures（石像）/paper money（纸币）/ diamond necklace（钻石项链）/gold medals（金牌）
2.表地点的名词作定语，说明被修饰的名词存在或发生的地方 如：country music（乡村音乐） /post office（邮政局）/nature park（天然公园）/table cloth（桌布）/street lights（街灯）/city life（城市生活）
3.如果两名词构成部分与整体关系,则表整体的名词可以作定语(常指物)如:river banks(河岸)/cabbage seed(卷心菜种子) /cigarette ends(烟头)/ocean floor(洋底)/school gate(校门口)/
当我们谈到某特定的东西时,可用of结构来表达.如：the windows of the classroom
4.表示用途性质的名词作定语 如：coffee cups（咖啡杯）/book stores（书店）/sports shoes（运动鞋）/food factory（食品工厂）/women police officers（女警官）/boy friends（男朋友）/design office（设计工作室）/fruit trees（水果树）/traffic lights（交通灯）/bell rope（铃绳）
5.说明有关后一名词内容的前一名词可作定语 如： weight problems（体重问题）/science lab（科学实验室）/computer studies（电脑学习）/weather report（天气报）/film industry（电影工业）/wildlife project（野生动物工程）/China Daily（中国日报）/body language（体语言）
6.表示泛指的时间名词作定语 如：summer holidays（暑假）/winter weather（冬天的天气）/time zone（时区）/evening dress（晚礼服）/morning paper（晨报）
但表示具体的时间名词作定语，则要用所有格结构来表达如：yesterday’s news（昨天的消息）/an hour’s drive（开车一小时的路程）
注：名词作修饰语，一般用单数形式,如：a coffee cup→two coffee cups. 但如果作定语的是man和woman则中心名词变复数时两词要随着变为复数形式，如：a woman teacher → two women teachers; a man driver→ many men drivers；在个别情况下，只用复数作定语，如：sports meet（运动会）/the United States government（美国政府）/students reading-room（学生阅览室）/goods train（货车）
1. He gained his ______ by printing _____ of famous writers.(NMET95)
A. wealth; work B. wealths ; works C. wealths ; work D. wealth; works
2. I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible. Just have a little _______. (NMET96)
A. wait B. time C. patience D. rest
3. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ______. (NMET97)
A. message B. letter C. sentence D. notice
4. You’ll find this map of great _______ in helping to get around London.(NMET98)
A. pay B. paying C. value D. usefulness
5. For the sake of her daughter’s health, she decided to move to a warm ______.(NMET上海)
A. weather B. temperature C. season D. climate
6. I saw Bob play the piano at John’s party and on that ___ he was simply brilliant.(NMET2002上海)
A. scene B. circumstance C. occasion D. situation
7. It can’t be a(n) _____ that four jewelry stores were robbed in one night. (NMET2002上海)
A. coincidence B. accident C. incident D. chance
8. The environmentalists and wild goats’ _____on the vast grasslands was a good indication of the better environment.（04上海）
A. escape B. absence C. attendance D. appearance
9. In dealing with public relations, we should make every effort to prevent the ___ in personality.
A. contact B. contrast C. connection D. conflict （04上海）
10. Chinese arts have won the _________ of a lot of people outside China.（04上海）
A. enjoyment B. appreciation C. entertainment D. reputation
11. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within of little children . （04湖北）
A．hand B．reach C．space D．distance
12. -Would you like , sir?
-No, thanks. I have had much. (05福建)
A. some more oranges B. any more oranges C. some more orange D. any more orange
13. The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has _______ all over the country.(05辽宁)
A. companies B. branches C. organizations D. businesses
14. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______. (05天津)
A. ability B. force C. strength D. mind
15. I am sure David will be able to find the library-he has a pretty good _____ of direction.(05浙江)
A. idea B. feeling C. experience D. sense
16. He proved himself a true gentleman and the beauty of his ____ was seen at its best when he worked with others. (05上海)
A. temper B. appearance C. talent D. character
17. The village is far away from here indeed. It's _____ walk. (05上海春季)
A . a four hour B. a four hour's C. a four-hours D. a four hours'
18. I have read the material several times but it doesn't make any ________ to me. (05上海春季)
A meaning B. importance C. sense D. significance
19. Usually a child's behaviour is a ________ of his family environment(05上海春季)
A. recognition B. reflection C. return D. record
20. We need to consider what ___ we will be using for language training. (05上海春季)
A. abilities B. appliances C. facilities D. qualities
21. It is no _______ arguing with Bill because he will never change his mind. (06全国3)
A. use B. help C. time D. way
22. Always read the ______on the bottle carefully and take the right amount of medicine. (06福建)
A. explanations B. instructions C. descriptions D. introductions
23. You have been sitting on my hat and now it is badly out of . (06广东)
A. date B. shape C. order D. balance
24. To make members Of a team perform better, the trainer first of all has to know their _____ and weaknesses. (06湖北)
A. strengths B. benefits C. techniques D. values
25. The ______on his face told me that he was angry. (06湖北)
A. impression B. sight C. appearance D. expression
26. It is said that dogs will keep you _____as long as you want when you are feeling lonely. (06江西)
A. safety B. company C. house D. friend
27. --- If you like I can do some shopping for you.
--- That’s a very kind of you for your________.（06浙江）
A. offer B. service C. point D. suggestion
28. Put the ___ of your tongue against your upper teeth when you produce the sound. （06上海春）
A. tip B. top C. peak D. pole
29. School children must be taught how to deal with dangerous _______. （06辽宁）
A. states B. conditions C. situations D. positions
30. Finding information in today’s world is easy. The _____ is how you can tell if the information you get is useful or not. （06天津）
A. ability B. competition C. challenge D. knowledge
1. All the _____ have three ______ each.
A. heros; photoes B. heroes; photos C. heroes; photoes D. heros; photos
2. Philip wrote to Hayward for ______ about Paris.
A. a information B. an information C. information D. informations
3. ---Could you find an answer to your problem in the book I gave you?
---I looked at it, but it wasn’t really ______.
A. much used B. able to use C. of useful D. of much use
4. I’m sorry I’m late, I hope I didn’t cause you ______.
A. too much problem B. problem C. many more trouble D. too much trouble
5. ---Is the house very expensive, Dick?
---I don’t think it’s worth the ______ they are asking.
A. price B. cost C. value D. money
6. If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with ____ money and ____ people.
A. less; less B. fewer; fewer C. less; fewer D. fewer; less
7. ---What would you like to drink?
--- I’d like to have _____, please.
A. a coffee B. small coffee C. little coffee D. a cup coffee
8. _____ do we need for the winter?
A. How many woods B. How many wood C. How much of wood D. How much wood
9. Julie went to the ______ to buy a pair of shoes.
A. shoes store B. shoe store C. shoe’s store D. shoes’ store
10. I had to write a _____ composition.
A. two-thousand-word B. two-thousand-words C. two-thousands word D. two-thousand words
11. They are _____ in name, but they are no longer in practice.
A. woman doctors B. women doctors C. women doctor D. ladies doctors
12. The ______ we saw yesterday come out to the farm once in a while.
A. cow B. dog C. deer D. horse
13. ______ is needed in cold countries.
A.A lot of clothes B. Much clothing C. Many a cloth D. Lots of clothes
14. I tried every _____ to make him give up smoking, but failed.
A. mean B. ways C. meaning D. means
15. ______ are a hardworking people.
A. The Germany B. The German C. The Germans D. The Germen
16. _____ are sold in the new store.
A. Man and child’s shoes B. Men’s and children’s shoes
C. Men and children shoes D. Men’s and child’s shoes
17. ---Where’s your brother? ---At _____.
A. Mr green’s B. Greens C. the Green’s D. the Greens
18. Ten years had passed, I found she had ____.
A. a little white hairs B. some white hair C. a few white hair D. a few white hairs
19. If these shoes are too big, buy a smaller _____.
A. set B. one C. copy D. pair
20. He was so excited, for he bought _____ yesterday.
A. many furnitures B. a lot furniture C. many pieces of furnitures D. a lot of furniture
21. The Browns are ______.
A. my father and my mother’s friends B. my father’s and my mother’s friends
C. my father and my mother’s friend D. friends of mine father and mother
22. There are two _____ in our class.
A. wang B. wangs C. wang’s D. wangs’
23. There are _____ of different presses, now they are having a meeting in one of the _____ office.
A. editor-in-chiefs; editor’s-in-chief B. editors-in-chief; editors-in-chief’s
C. editor’s-in-chief; editor’s-in-chief D. editor-in-chief’s; editor’s-in-chiefs
24. ---Are you sure that you don’t want to go to the movies tonight?
---I can’t. I have _____to do.
A. much homeworks B. too much homework
C. much too many homework D. too many homeworks
25. She said that we shouldn’t ____ in time of difficulties and that we should be hopeful.
A. lose hearts B. lose heart C. lose her hearts D. lose the heart
1~5 DCACD 6~10 CADDB 11~15 BCBCD 16~20 DDCBC
21~25 ABBAD 26~30 BAACC
1~5 BCDDA 6~10 CADBA 11~15 BCBDC 16~20 BADDD
1.不定冠词用来表示类别,指某一类人或某一类事物中的一个如:Her uncle is an engineer.
2.不定冠词用于单数可数名词之前,可以表示其种类如:A steel worker makes steel.
3.指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物 如:He taught maths in a middle school two years ago.
如:We work eight hours a day.我们每天工作八小时
二.定冠词的基本用法 单数名词或复数名词, 可数名词或不可数名词之前,都可以使用定冠词。
1.定冠词用来特指某（些）人或某（些）事物。被短语或定语从句修饰的名词，都有特指之意，在该名词前，一般要使用定冠词 如：The TV set in her room is a new one
I have found the lock, but where is the key? 我已找到锁了，但是钥匙在哪儿呢？
3.复述上文中提到的事物，要用定冠词 如：There is a shelf in my father’s house. The shelf is new. On the shelf there are some books. The books are very useful.
4.定冠词用于单数可数名词之前，表示种类，如：The lion is the king of beasts.狮为百兽之王。
6.在表示方位的名词前，要用定冠词，如：in the west; on the south.
7.乐器的名词前，要用定冠词，如：play the piano; play the violin.
8.在表示世界上独一无二的名词前，要用定冠词，如：the sun; the moon; the earth; the world.
9.在表示党派、阶级等名词前，要用定冠词，如：the Communist Party
10.在某些形容词之前使用定冠词，可表示某一类人，如：the old; the rich; the poor
1.在江河、海洋、山脉等的名称前，如: the Changjiang River.
2.在含有普通名词的专有名词前，如：the United Nations.
如：Air is important to man, but the polluted air is harmful to people's health.
2.物质名词和抽象名词如果具体化，表示一个具体情况、动作或某一物质时，其前要用不定冠词 如：Have a smoke, please.
1.如果名词前有物主代词、名词所有格、指示代词以及some, any, no ,each或 every 等代词作定语时就不用冠词如：Our school is not far from here.
如：We will elect Engineer Liu director of our factory.
3. 复数名词表示某一类人或事物时，不用冠词，如：They are professors. We are doctors.
6. 球类活动和棋类游戏的名称前不用冠词，如：play basketball; play chess.
7. 节日、假日的名称前不用冠词，如：Children’s Day; Women’s Day, May Day.
8. 在一些常用短语中，名词前不用冠词，如：go to bed, go to school, go to college.
1. Summers in ___ south of France are for____ most part dry and sunny. (春季 北京)
A.不填；a B. the; 不填 C. 不填;不填 D. the; the
2. Mr. Smith, there’s a man at _____ front door who says he has _____ news for you of great importance.(01春季北京)
A. the ; 不填 B. the ; the C. 不填;不填 D.不填; the
3. The cakes are delicious. He’d like to have ______third one because ______second one is rather too small.( 02 春季上海)
A. a ; a B. the ; the C. a ; the D. the ; a
4. I don’t like talking on_______ telephone; I prefer writing ______ letters. (02春季 北京)
A. a ; the B. the ;不填 C. the ; the D. a ; 不填
5. One way to understand thousands of new words is to gain _____ good knowledge of basic word
A.不填 B. the C. a D. one
6. Jumping out of _____ airplane at ten thousand feet is quite ______ exiting experience.(NMET2002)
A.不填; the B.不填 ; an C. an ; an D. the ; the
7. The sign reads “In case of______ fire, break the glass and push ____ red button”.(03全国)
A. 不填; a B.不填 ; the C. the; the D. a; a
8. I earn 10 dollars _____ hour as _____ supermarket cashier on Saturday.(03上海)
A. a; an B. the; a C. an; a D. an; the
9. The young dancers looked so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took _____ pictures
of them.（03 上海）
A. many of B. masses of C. the number of D. a large amount of
10. An accident happened at ____ crossroads a few metres away from_____ bank.(03春季 上海)
A. a; a B. 不填; a C. 不填; the D. the; 不填
11. When you come here for your holiday next time, don’t go to ____ hotel; I can find you____ bed in my flat.（04全国卷I）
A. the; a B. the; 不填 C. a; the D. a; 不填
12. When you finish reading the book, you will have ____ better understanding of ____ life.（04辽宁）
A. a; the B. the; a C. 不填; the D. a;不填
13.Tom owns ______large collection of ______books than any other students in our class.(04江苏)
A. the;不填 B. a;不填 C. a; the D. 不填; the
14. While he was investigating ways to improve the telescope, Newton made _____ discovery which completely changed ______ man’s understanding of colour.（04广东）
A. a; 不填 B. a; the C. 不填; the D. the; a
15. The most important thing about cotton in history is _____ part that it played in _____Industrial Revolution.（04重庆）
A. 不填;不填 B. the; 不填 C. the; the D. a; the
16. It is ____ world of wonders, _______ world where anything can happen.(04福建)
A. a; the B. a; a C. the; a D. 不填;不填
17. The Wilsons live in ____ A-shaped house near the coast. It is ___ 17th century cottage.（04浙江）
A. the;不填 B. an; the C.不填; the D. an; a
18. For a long time they walked without saying ___ word. Jim was the first to break __ silence.(04湖南)
A. the; a B. a; the C. a; 不填 D. the; 不填
19. There was ____ time _____ I hated to go to school.(04湖北)
A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the; when
20. When he left ____ college, he got a job as _____ reporter in a newspaper office.(04天津)
A. 不填; a B. 不填; the C. a; the D. the; the
21. _____ on-going division between English-speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians is_____ major concern of country.(04北京)
A. The; 不填 B. The; a C. An; the D. An; 不填
22. If you buy more than ten, they knock 20 pence off _____.(04吉林)
A. a price B. price C. the price D. prices
23. Mary kept weighing herself to see how much _____ she was getting.(04全国卷I)
A. heavier B. heavy C. the heavier D. the heaviest
24.On _____ news today, there were ______ reports of heavy snow in that area.(04春季 北京)
A. the; the B. the; 不填 C. 不填;不填 D. 不填; the
25.The village is far away from here indeed. It’s _____ walk.(04春季 上海)
A. a four hour B. a four hour’s C. a four-hours D. a four hours’
26. If you go by ____ train, you can have quite a comfortable journey, but make sure you get ____ fast one. (05全国III)
A. the; the B. 不填；a C. the; a D. 不填；不填
27. recent report stated that the number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. would be higher than the number of English speakers by year 2090. (05北京春季)
A. A;the B. A;不填 C. The;不填 D. The;a
28. After dinner he gave Mr. Richardson ______ ride to ______ Capital Airport.（05安徽）
A. the; a B. a; the C. 不填; a D.不填; the
29. It is often said that ______ teachers have ______, very easy life.(05北京)
A. 不填；不填 B. 不填；a C. the ；不填 D. the；a
30. I can't remember when exactly the Rohinsons left __ city. I only remember it was ____ Monday.
A. the, the B. a, the C. a, a D. the, a （05湖南）
31. On May 5, , at________World Table Tennis Championship, Kong Linghui and Wang Hao
won the gold medal in men's doubles with ________ score of 4: 1. （05江苏）
A. a; a B. 不填; the C. a; 不填 D. the; a
32. If you grow up in ______ large family, you are more likely to develop ______ ability to get on well with ________ others. （05江西）
A. /; an; the B. a; the; / C. the; an; the D. a; the; the
33. This book tells ________ life story of John Smith, who left ______ school and worked for a newspaper at the age of 16.（05辽宁）
A. the; the B. a; the C. the; 不填 D. a; 不填
34. Mrs. Taylor has _________ 8-year-old daughter who has _________ gift for painting-she has won two national prizes.（05浙江）
A. a; a B. an; the C. an; a D. the; a
35. As a rule, domestic servants doing odd jobs are paid ________ .（05上海春季）
A. by the hour B. by hour C. by an hour D. by hours
36. I knew ______ John Lennon, but not ______ famous one.（05山东）
A. 不填；a B. a；the C. 不填；the D. the；a
37. --- I knocked over my coffee cup. It went right over ______ keyboard.
--- You shouldn’t put drinks near ________ computer. (北京)
A. the ; 不填 B. the ; a C. a ; 不填 D. a ; a
38. --- Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith?
--- Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. (全国1)
A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one
39. According to______ World Health Organization, health care plans are needed in all big cities to prevent______ spread of AIDS. (全国2)
A.the;不填 B.the;the C.a;a D.不填;the
40. Your story is perfect; I’ve never heard _______ before. (全国3)
A. the better one B. the best one C. a better one D. a good one
41. I know you don’t like _______ music very much. But what do you think of _______ music in the film we saw yesterday? (全国3)
A. /; / B. the; the C. the; / D. /; the
42.In___________ review off 44 studies, American researchers found that men and women who ate six key foods daily cut the risk of_______ heart disease by 76%. (湖南)
A. a; the B. the;a C. a;不填 D.不填;a
43. For him ____ stage is just ___ means of making a living. (山东)
A. a; a B.the; a C. the ; the D. a; the
44. Don’t worry if you can’t come to _______ party. --- I’ll save ______ cake for you. （浙江）
A. the ; some B. a ; much C. the ; any D. a ; little
45. Everywhere man has cut down_______ forests in order to grow crops，or to use _______wood as fuel or as building material. （06重庆）
A.the;the B.the;/ C./；the D./；/
46. Of all _______ reasons for my decision to become a university professor, my father’s advice was most important one.（06辽宁）
A.the;a B.不填；a C.不填;the D. the; the
1. You can have _________ second try if you fail ________ first time.
A. the ; / B. / ; a C. the ; a D. a ; the
2. What _______fun it is to travel in _______ spaceship !
A. a ; a B. / ; a C. the ; a D. a ; the
3. Washington was elected ____president in 1787. He was the first president of _____United States.
A. the ; the B. / ; the C. / ; / D. the ; /
4. Such books poison ________ minds of _________ young.
A. the; the B. the ; a C. / ; the D./ ; /
5. The police have _______ power to arrest bad people by _____ law.
A. / ; the B. the ; the ; C. / ; / D. the ; /
6._____Sunday before ______ Spring Festival was very busy.
A. A; a B. The ; the C. /; the D. The ; /
7._____ poet and ______writer was invited to give us a talk the other day.
A. A; a B.The; the C. The; a D. The ; /
8._____ more you use a dictionary , ________more useful it will be to you.
A. The ; the B. The ; / C. / ; the D. / ; /
9. As you know , ______ can’t live without water.
A. man B. a man C. the man D. men
10. Mary took Tom by _______ hand and led him into _______ back room .
A. the ; a B; a ; the C. / ; a D . / ; the
11. It is _____ pity that you missed ______ important lecture given by Professor Wang.
A. / ; an B. a ; the C. / ; the D.the ; an
12. ______ meeting held last night was _______ great success.
A. A; a B. A; / C. The ; a D. The ; /
13 The old scientist devoted all his life to bringing out _____ secret of _____ nature.
A. the ; / B. the ; the C. / ; the D. / ; /
14. Alice is _______ taller of the two girls. She is also ____ tallest in her class.
A. a ; the B. the ; a C. the ; the D. / ; the
15. There are _____ number of books in our school library, but I don’t know ______number of
A. a ; the ; / B. the ; a ; / C. the ; a ; the D. a ; the ; the
16. Lesson Two is ______ most difficult lesson in Book Two , but it is not ____ most difficult
lesson in it.
. A. a ; the B. the ; a C. the ; the D. a ; /
17. _______ sick and ______ wounded are taken good care of in the hospital.
A. A ; a B. / ; / C. . The ; the D. The ; a
18. ________ came that I was wanted at the office.
A. Words B. The words C. Word D. The word
19.______ Yellow River is _______ pride of _____ People’s Republic of China.
A. The ; / ; a B. A ; the ; a C. The ; the ; the D. / ; / ; the
20. It is not polite to make _____ fun of ______ others.
A. a ; the B. / ; the C. / ; / D. the ; the
21. We waved good-bye to one another till the train was out of ______ sight .
A. a B. an C. the D. /
22.------ You dreamed ________ terrible dream ?
------ Yes. I found my friend turned ________ traitor（叛徒）to our country.
A. a ; the B. the ; a C. a ; / D. the ; /
23. ----- I’m afraid I dare not speak in _____ public .
----- Just have _____try.
A. a ; / B. / ; a C. the ; a D. the ; the
24 .He had decided to give it up, but on _______second thoughts he decided to try _____ third time.
A. the ; a B. / ; / C. a ; a D. / ; a
25. I’ve got _____ book about ______ life of Kennedy.
A. a ; a B. a ; the C. the ; a D. the ; /
26. Some people say that ______ British are ____ funny people.
A. the ; a B. / ; the C. the ; the D. the ; /
27.----- You’re sure to help me find _____ bed for my new house ?
------ Sure, but not now. I 'm heading for ______ bed and a good sleep.
A. a ; a B. the ; a C. a ; / D. the ; /
28.----- What about _____ book ?
------ It’s too difficult _______ book for me.
A. the ; the B. the ; a C. a ; a D. a ; the
29. I’m _____ Chinese and I do feel ______Chinese language is ____ most beautiful language.
A. / ; the ; a B. a ; / ; the C. a ; the ; / D. a ; / ; a
30. -----Who is your English teacher?
----Mr Brown, _____ European working in _______ Shandong University.
A. an ; the B. a ; the C. an ; / D. a ; /
31. -----Have you seen pen ? I left it here this morning.
----Is it ____ black one? I think I saw it some where.
A. a; the B. the; the C. the; a D. a; a
32. Alexander Graham Bell invented ______ telephone in 1876.
A. / B. a C. the D. one
33._______ will make a trip around the world during the coming Christmas
A. The Evens B. The Evens’ C. The Evenses D. The Evenses’
34.Alice is fond of playing_____ piano while Henry is interested in listening to_____ music.
A. / ; the B. / ; / C. the ; / D. the ; the
35. Many people agree that _____ good knowledge of English is a must in ____ international trade today.
A. a; / B. /; the C. /; / D. the; the
36. Many people are still in _____ habit of writing silly things in _____ public places.
A. the; the B. /; / C. the; / D. /; the
37. The warmth of ____ sweater will of course be determined by the sort of _____ wool used.
A. the ; the B. the ; / C. / ; the D. / ; /
38. ------- Where is Jack ?
------- I think he is still in ______ bed , but he might just be in _____ bathroom.
A. / ; / B. the ; the C. the ; / D. / ; the
39. Paper money was in _____ use in China when Marco Polo visited the country in _____ thirteenth century.
A. the; / B. the; the C. /; the D. /; /
40. Most animals have little connection with ______ animals of _____ different kind unless they
kill them for food.
A. the ; a B. / ; a C. the ; the D. / ; the
1~5 DACBC 6~10 CBCBA 11~15 ADBAC 16~20 ADBBA
21~25 BCABD 26~30 BABBD 31~35 DBCCA 36~40 BBBBC
1~5 DBBAD 6 ~10 BDAAA 11~15 BCACD 16~20 ACCCC
21~25 DCBDB 26~30 ACBAD 31~35 DCACA 36~40 CBDCB
句 型 条件从句 主句
一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形
例如：If he comes, he will bring his violin. 如果他来，会带小提琴来的。
The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.
A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained
1）在真实条件句中，主句不能用be going to表示将来，该用shall, will.
（错） If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.
（对） If you leave now, you will never regret it.
2）表示真理时，主句谓语动词不用shall （will） +动词原形，而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。
一般过去时（be用were） should（would）等 +动词原形
例如：If they were here, they would help you. 如果他们在这儿，会帮助你的。
含义：They are not here, they can’t help you.
过去完成时 should（would）等+ have+ 过去分词
例如：If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it.如果他昨天来的话，我会把这件事告诉他的。
含义：He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.
一般过去时 should/would等 + 动词原形
例如：If you succeeded, everything would be all right. 如果你将来成功了，一切都会好的。
If you should succeed, everything would be all right.
If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.
含义：You are not likely to succeed, everything will be what it is now.
If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. 如果你昨天问过他，今天就知道做什么了。
If it had rained last night（过去）, it would be very cold today （现在）.如果昨晚下过雨，今天就会很冷了。
虚拟条件句的从句部分含有were, should, 或had时, 可省略if，再把were, should或had 移到从句的句首，实行倒装。例如：
Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us.他们现在在的话，就会帮助我们了。
Had you come earlier, you would have met him. =If you had come earlier, you would have met him.你来得早一点，就碰到他了。
Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.假如下雨，庄稼就有救了。
If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你，就会去找他。
If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿，一切都会好的。
_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.
A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I
答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词，通常将if省略，主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意，在虚拟条件状语从句中，省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do, 而不能说 Weren't I to do。
It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…等结构的主语从句，谓语动词用should 加动词原形，should 可省略。
It is 可用的词有三类 that （should）do
suggested, ordered, required, proposed, demanded, requested, insisted等
important, necessary, natural, imperative, strange等
a pity, a shame, no wonder等
在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中，像order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + （should） do等。例如：
I suggest that we （should） hold a meeting next week. 我建议下周召开个会议。
He insisted that he （should ） be sent there.他要求被派到那儿去。
注意：如suggest, insist不表示“建议” 或“坚持要某人做某事时”，即它们用于其本意“暗示、表明”、“坚持认为”时，宾语从句用陈述语气。
判断改错： （错） You pale face suggests that you（should）be ill.
（对） Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
（错） I insisted that you（should）be wrong.
（对） I insisted that you were wrong.
suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气，即（should）+动词原形。例如：
My idea is that we（should）get more people to attend the conference.我的想法是让更多的人来参加会议。
I make a proposal that we（should）hold a meeting next week.我提了个建议，下周我们开个会。
从句动作先于主句动词动作（be的过去式为 were） 现在时 过去时
从句动作与主句动作同时发生（had + 过去分词） 过去时 过去完成时
将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +动词原形
例如：I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。
He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲过那样的话。
I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。
2）wish to do；wish sb / sth to do。例如：
I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager. 我希望见一见经理。
I wish the manager to be informed at once. （= I want the manager to be informed at once.）我希望经理能马上得到消息。
16.7 比较if only与only if
only if表示“只有”；if only则表示“如果……就好了”。If only也可用于陈述语气。例如：
I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了，我才会醒。
If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响就好了。
If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。
16.8 It is （high） time that
It is （high） time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形，但should不可省略。例如：
It is time that the children went to bed. 孩子们该睡觉了。
It is high time that the children should go to bed.
16.9 need “不必做”和“本不必做”
didn't need to do表示过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。
needn't have done表示过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。例如：
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home.
John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home.
There was plenty of time. She ___.
A. mustn't have hurried B. couldn't have hurried C. must not hurry D. needn't have hurried
答案D。needn't have done. 意为“本不必”，即已经做了某事，而时实际上不必要。
Mustn't have done 用法不正确，对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, “不可能已经”。 must not do 不可以（用于一般现在时）。
1.Everything ______ if Albert hadn’t called the fire brigade.
a.will be destroyed b. will have been destroyed
b.would be destroyed d. would have been destroyed
2.If you hadn’t gone with Tom to the party last night,______.
a.you would meet John already b. you won’t have missed John
c.you will have met John d. you would have met John
3.Supposing this ship ______ , do you think there would be enough life jackets for all the passengers?
a. was sinking b. has sunk c. were to sink d. sunk
4.The insects would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and heads, if ______ for the protection we get from insect-eating animals.
a. it is not b. it were not c. were it not d. they were not
5.The teacher suggested that each student ______ a plan for the vacation.
a. made b. make c. makes d. will make
6.Frankly, I’d rather you ______ anything about it for the time being.
a. do b. don’t do c. didn’t do d. will not do
7.After the way she treated you, if I ______ in your place.
a. be b. am c. was d. were
8.The idea is that the nation ______ an unmanned spacecraft to explore the planet first.
a. sent b. sends c. send d. must send
9.It’s high time you ______.
a. start to work b. would start to work c. started to work d. had started to work
10.“If I hadn’t practiced when I was younger,” the musician says,“I ______ able to play so well now.”
a. wouldn’t be b. won’t be c. wouldn’t have been d. couldn’t have been
11.It is imperative that you ______ there in person.
a. are b. were c. be d. will be
12.The atomic structure is, ______, a miniature solar system.
a. as it were b. as if they were c. as it were d. as if are
13.We required that the machine parts ______ cast iron.
a. is made of b. be made from c. be made of d. is made by
14.The management urged that the cost of production ______.
a.to be further reduced b. was further reduced
b.be further reduced d. should further reduced
15.The business is risky. But ______ we would be rich.
a. should we succeed b. we should succeed c. might we succeed d. would we succeed
16.I wish our teacher ______ to give another test. I haven’t got prepared yet.
a. isn’t going b. weren’t going c. will not going d. could have gone
17.I wish I ______ to the movies with you last night.
a. went b. did go c. could go d. could have gone
18.I’d just as soon ______ rudely to her.
a. that you won’t speak b. your not speaking c. you not speak d. you didn’t speak
19.If I ______ in the twenty-first century, I ______ my vacation in a very different way.
a. should live…would spend b. will live ….should spend
c. are living … should have spent d. will be living…would have spent
20.It is required that the machine ______ as frequently as necessary.
a. be oiled b. must be oiled c. is oiled d. will oil
21.His English teacher recommends that he ______ a regular degree program.
a. begins b. begin c. will begin d. is beginning
22.We prefer that the plan ______ before being put into execution.
a.is fully discussed b. must be fully discussed
c.be fully discussed d. will be fully discussed
23.What do you think of his proposal that improvements ______ in the old type of vacuum cleaner?
a. be made b. will be made c. would be made d. will have to be made
24.The doctor’s advice is that the patient ______ about his real physical condition.
a.be not told b. not be told c. will not be told d. must not be told
25.______,we could not have finished the work on time.
a.If they do not help us b. Was it not for their help
c.Should they offer to help us d. But for their help
26.If we had been more careful, we ______ much better results now.
a. got b. had got c. would be getting d. would have got
27.Henry ______ a rich man today if he had been more frugal in the past.
a. would be b. is c. will be d. was
28.They thought it desirable that an armed guard ______ in readiness.
a. stands b. stand c. stood d. would stand
29.All science students, ______,should have a good foundation in basic sciences.
a.whether they are future physicists and chemists
b.they are future physicists of chemists
c.they should be future physicists of chemists
d.be they future physicists or chemists
30.Sally can’t have written tome, or ______ the letter by now.
a. I’ll get b. I’ll have got c. I’d have got d. I’d get
31.I should very much like to have gone to the party but I ______.
a. am not invited b. was not invited c. shall not be invited d. am not being invited
32.There is a general understanding among the members of the Board of Directors that chief attention ______ to the undertaking that is expected to bring in highest profit.
a. is given b. gives c. should be given d. must be given
33.One of the requirements for a fire is that the material ______ to its burning temperature.
a. be heated b. is heated c. would be heated d. to heat
34.“Did you go to see the football match yesterday?”
“No. I didn’t feel well, but I would have gone if I ______.”
a.did b. have c. would d. had
35.If we had known that she had planned to arrive today, we ______ her at the bus station.
a. may have met b. might meet c. may meet d. might have met
36.We’re safer in a train than we would be if we ______ any other way.
a. traveled b. had traveled c. travel d. have traveled
37.He told me how he had given me shelter and protection without which I ______ of hunger and cold.
a. would be died b. would have died c. would die d . will have died
38.______ today, he would get there by Friday.
a.Was he leaving b. If he is leaving c. Were he to leave d. If he leaves
39.Had electronic computers not been invented, many problems of space flight ______.
a.could be not solved b. could not be solved
b.could not have been solved d. could not have solved
40.He is a poorly learnt man. But he acts as though he ______.
a. is b. were c. should be d. seems like
41.The driver looked over the engine carefully lest it ______ on the way.
a. goes wrong b. go wrong c. went wrong d. would go wrong
42.______ the fog, we should have reached our destination.
a. Because of b. In spite of c. In case of d. But for
43.The old man went to office on foot, but he ______ by bus.
a. might have gone b. ought have gone c. could have gone d. should be gone
44.He is working hard for fear that he ______ to pass the exam.
a. fails b. may fail c. should fail d. would fail
45.She put on her glasses in order that she _____.
a. can see b. saw c. had seen d. might see
46.Whatever ______ we’ll go ahead.
a. had happened b. will happen c. might happen d. may be happened
47.If I ______ out of ink, I might have finished writing the paper.
a. hadn’t run b. shouldn’t run c. didn’t run d. haven’t run
48.But for your advice, I ______ into trouble.
a. would get b. got c. might have got d. should get
49.______ for the traffic jam, I should have covered fifty miles.
a. Had it been b. Had it not been c. It had not been d. It not had been
50.Were it not for the adoption of the open policy, things ______ they are today.
a. would never be b. could have been c. would never have been d. didn’t have
51.If only I ______ there.
a. have not been b. would not been c. will not be d. had not been
52.Tom would buy that bicycle but he ______ no money.
a. had b. has c. had had d. has had
53.I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.
a. was b. were c. had been d. went
54.It is time we ______ up our results.
a. sum b. summed c. will sum d. would sum
55.Dr Bethune worked hard as if he ______.
a. never had felt tired b. had never felt tired c. never felt tired d . was tired never
56.I enjoyed the movie very much. I wish I ______ the book from which it was made.
a. have read b. should have read c. am reading d. had read
57.It is strange that such a thing ______ in your school.
a.will happen b. happens c. should happen d. happened
58.If she could sew,______.
a.she make a dress b. she would have made a shirt
c.she will make a shirt d. she would had made a coat
59.“Did you notice John was not at work today?”
“No. If ______ working, I would have noticed it.”
a.I’d be b. I wasn’t c. I’d been d. weren’t
60.“Why don’t you explain it to her?”
“I ______ it to her if I thought she would understand.”
a.would explain b. will explain c. explain d. would have explained
61.“Your performance was very good.”
“I could have done better if I ______ more time.”
a. have had b. had c. had had d. will have had
62.“She wouldn’t drink her medicine last night, would she?”
a.No, but I wish she wouldn’t b. No, but I wish she had
b.Yes, I wish she drank d. yes, I wish she could
63.I think it advisable that he ______ for Tokyo soon.
a. will leave b. may leave c. leave d. leaves
64.The committee asked that the matter ______ at the next meeting.
a. would be discussed b. will be discussed c. be discussed d. may be discussed
65.______ to the doctor right away, he might have been alive today.
a.If he went b. Were he gone c. should he had gone d. Had he gone
66.______ the work, he would do it some other way.
a. Was he going b. If he does c. Were he to do d. If he is doing
67._____,I hardly think I would have recognized him.
a.Should his name not be mentioned b. Had someone not mentioned his name
c.If someone did not mention his name d. If someone had mentioned his name
68.I’d just as soon ______ to the theatre tonight.
a. not going b. not to go c. not go d. that I won’t go
69.At the last committee meeting, the motion that the club ______ open until midnight was defeated.
a. remains b. remain c. remained d. would remain
70.The business of each day, ______ selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.
a. it being b. be it c. was it d. it was
1 D 19 A 37 B 55 B
2 D 20 A 38 C 56 D
3 C 21 B 39 C 57 C
4 B 22 C 40 B 58 B
5 B 23 B 41 B 59 C
6 C 24 A 42 D 60 A
7 D 25 D 43 C 61 C
8 C 26 C 44 C 62 B
9 C 27 A 45 D 63 C
10 A 28 B 46 C 64 C
11 C 29 D 47 A 65 D
12 C 30 C 48 C 66 C
13 C 31 B 49 B 67 B
14 C 32 C 50 C 68 C
15 A 33 A 51 D 69 B
16 B 34 D 52 B 70 B
17 D 35 D 53 C 71
18 D 36 A 54 B 72
现在分词 doing being done going
过去分词 / done gone
完成式 having done having been done /
We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日
He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人
There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里
This is the question given. 这是所给的问题
There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西
分词作定语相当于定语从句，如Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. = Most of the people who wereinvited to the party were famous scientists.
1） The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.
A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案D. 书与写作是被动关系，应用过去分词做定语表被动，相当于定语从句 which was written
2）What's the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak
答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。spoken，在句中作定语，修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为：What's the language （which is） spoken in German?
Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call. 由于没有收到他的信，我给他打了个电话。
As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.
Given more attention，the trees could have grown better. 多给些照顾，那些树会长得更好。
If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.
1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.
A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外，还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by（被…跟随）。本题可改为： With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.
2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.
A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed
3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases.
A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案C. 本题要选分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated，…
Used for a long time, the book looks old. 由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧。
Using the book, I find it useful. 在使用的过程中，我发现这本书很有用。
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚，可在分词前加连词。 连词有： when，while，if though，after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个。例如：
While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.
等在那儿时，他看见两个靓妹走出大楼。（waiting 和saw 的主语相同）
I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。
'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。
She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭，看上去有些疲倦。
He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。
generally speaking 一般说来
talking of （speaking of） 说道
strictly speaking 严格的说
judging from 从…判断
all things considered 从整体来看
taking all things into consideration 全面看来
例如：Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。
Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 （speaking 不是dogs 的动作）
Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. 听到这一消息，他高兴得手舞足蹈。
Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 一到那儿，他们就发现那男孩死了。
The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.
A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing
答案B. 此处没有连词，不能选D，否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was preparing。 只能在B，C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生，且与主语为主动关系，应用现在分词。
While walking in the garden，he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。
分词作时间状语，如果先与主动词的动作，且强调先后， 要用having done。
Having finished his homework, he went out. 做完作业后，他出去了。
=As he had finished his homework, he went out.
___ a reply, he decided to write again.
A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断，分词的动作（接信）发生在谓语动词的动作（决心再写信）之前，因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词，故选C。该句可理解为：Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.
He is the man giving you the money. （= who gave you…）他就是给你钱的那个人。
He is the man stopped by the car. （= who was stopped by…）他就是那个被车拦住的人。
2）不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生，如gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等。
例如： a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人
a much-traveled may 一个去过许多地方的人
a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴
篇11：高三英语复习（名词﹑数词﹑代词﹑冠词 ） (人教版高三英语上册教学论文)
1. Here’s my card. Let’s keep in ______.
A. touch B. relation C. connection D. friendship
2. He gained his ______ by printing _____ of famous writers.
A. wealth; work B. wealths; works C. wealths; work D. wealth; works
3. For the sake of her daughter’s health, she decided to move to a warm ____.
A. weather B. temperature C. season D. climate
4. I saw Bob play the piano at John’s party and on that _____ he was simply brilliant.
A. scene B. circumstance C. occasion D. situation
5.It can’t be a(n) _____ that four jewelry stores were robbed in one night.
A. coincidence B. accident C. incident D. chance
6. If you buy more than ten, they knock 20 pence off ______.
A. a price B. price C. the price D. prices
7. In dealing with public relations, we should make every effort to prevent the _____ in
A. contact B. contrast C. connection D. conflict
8. Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ___ any end to their influence
on man’s lives.
A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there
9. Don’t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within of little children .
A．hand B．reach C．space D．distance
10. ---Could you find an answer to your problem in the book I gave you?
---I looked at it, but it wasn’t really ______.
A. much used B. able to use C. of useful D. of much use
11. ---Is the house very expensive, Dick?
---I don’t think it’s worth the ______ they are asking.
A. price B. cost C. value D. money
12. ---What would you like to drink?
--- I’d like to have _____, please.
A. a coffee B. small coffee C. little coffee D. a cup coffee
13. I tried every _____ to make him give up smoking, but failed.
A. mean B. ways C. meaning D. means
14. Two _____ died of cold last year.
A. hundreds old people B. hundred old people
C. hundreds of old people D. hundred of old people
15. Last year the secretary and treasurer（掌管财政的人） of our club _____ John Poe.
A. is B. are C. was D. were
16. The first three of the five chapters in the book _____ very easy, but the rest _____ difficult.
A. is; are B. are; is C. was; were D. were; were
17. Ten years had passed, I found she had ____.
A. a little white hairs B. some white hair C. a few white hair D. a few white hairs
18. At the bus stop _____ a soldier and two young people on their way to the village.
A. were B. was C. is D. sits
19. When you finish reading the book, you will have ____ better understanding of ____ life.
A. a; the B. the; a C. 不填; the D. a;不填
20. –Do you think all the performances at the evening party are good?
--- Most of them are very good, but _____ could have been better.
A. none B. few C. another D. some
21. --- Did you reach the top of the mountain?
--- Yes. Even myself didn’t believe I could make _____.
A. that B. it C. myself D. them
22. The most important thing about cotton in history is _____ part that it played in _____Industrial Revolution.
A. 不填;不填 B. the; 不填 C. the; the D. a; the
23.Yasir Arafat, the symbol of _______ Palestinian Revolution for ________ independent state for some 40 years, died on Nov.11 in a Paris hospital.
A. / ; the B. the; the C. / ;an D. the ; an
24. There was ____ time _____ I hated to go to school.
A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the; when
25. It is reported that the United States uses ______ energy as the whole of Europe.
A. as twice B. twice much C. twice much as D. twice as much
26. Dog barking is no unpleasant noise but an auspice ( 吉祥 ) of fortune in ______ ears of Chinese, especially in the coming Year of _____ Dog in the Chinese lunar calendar.
A. a; a B. /; a C. /; the D. the; the
27. Although _______ curtain has fallen on the “ Super Girls” contest, ______ nationwide craze for “ Super girls” hasn’t cooled down.
A. a ;the B. the; a C. the; / D. /:; a
28. Such is ______ human nature that many people don’t value ______ things they possess until they’ve lost them.
A. / : / B. / ; the C. the; / D. a; the
29. --- Do you think advertisement is ______ help when you look for a job?
---- Well, it depends. Anyway, it gives me more of _____ chance to try.
A. a ;the B. a; a C. the ;the D. / ; /
30. _____ people in the world are sending information by E-mail every day.
A. Several million B. Many millions C. Several millions D. Many million
31. Paper produced every year is _____ the world’s production of vehicles.
A. the three times weight of B. three times the weight of
C. as three times heavy as D. three times as heavier as
32.Washington was elected ____president in 1787. He was the first president of _____United States.
A. the ; the B. / ; the C. / ; / D. the ; /
33. _____ poet and ______writer was invited to give us a talk the other day.
A. A; a B.The; the C. The; a D. The ; /
34. Mary took Tom by _______ hand and led him into _______ back room .
A. the ; a B; a ; the C. / ; a D . / ; the
35. Paper money was in _____ use in China when Marco Polo visited the country in _____ thirteenth century.
A. the; / B. the; the C. /; the D. /; /
36. Most animals have little connection with ______ animals of _____ different kind unless they kill them for food.
A. the ; a B. / ; a C. the ; the D. / ; the
37. --- What can I do for you?
---I’d like to take ________these tomatoes.
A. two dozen of B. two dozen C. two dozens D. two dozens of
38. The number of the photo copies they produced this year has increased _____ 30% compared with ______ of last year.
A. with ;ones B. to ; those C. by ; that D. of ; it
39. There at the door stood a girl about the same height _____ .
A. as me B. as mine C. with mine D. with me
40. We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ______.
A. none B. either C. any D. each
41.Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder , but ______ didn’t help.
A. he B. which C. she D. it
42. Mary learned Chinese for about two years, ______ is, from 1993 to 1995.
A. this B. that C. it D. she
43. Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge. I can’t remember _______.
A. where B. there C. which D. that
44. Social customs of America are more like ____ of England than of any other country
A. those B. what C. which D. that
45. --- Look at that girl at the stage. She is already fifty.
--- You’re joking. She doesn’t look ______.
A. so B. it C. that D. the one
46.She got _____ job in Manilia Manufacturing Company and gets paid by _____ hour.
A. a; an B. a; the C. a; 不填 D. the; the
47. Correct the mistakes in each line if _______.
A. so B. no C. any D. some
48. ---Some people believed that robots will take over the world one day.
--- What if that is the ______?
A. thing B. result C. case D. end
49. There’s no ______ from my bedroom window except for some factory chimneys.
A. view B. scene C. sight D. look
50. It’s important for us to employ a word or a phrase according to the ______ in language studies.
A. situation B. expression C. comprehension D. translation
51. We needed a new cupboard for the kitchen. So Peter made _____ from some wood we had.
A. it B. one C. himself D. another
52. --- What do you think of the furniture on exhibition?
--- Well, great! But I don’t think much of _____ you bought.
A. the one B. it C. that D. one
53. This is the last copy of David Copperfield of this edition left in our shop. I wonder if you still want to buy _______.
A. this B. it C. one D. any
54. I’ve learned ______, no matter what happens and how bad _____ seems today, life goes on and it will be better tomorrow.
A. that ; it B. it :;that C. it; it D that; that
55. The cruelty of the Germans towards the Jews and _____ of the Japanese towards their prisoners, filled ______ with horror.
A. those; someone B. that ; everyone C. it; on one D. this; anyone
56. --- Is David a man with good manners?
--- I don’t think so. As a matter of fact, he is ______ but polite.
A. something B. everything C. nothing D. anything
57. --- I have looked everywhere, but I haven’t found any black ink.
--- Then, I’m afraid there is ______ left.
A. nothing B. no one C. none D. neither
58. It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fizgerald reached _______ highest point.
A. their B. its C. his D. our
59. --- Who knocked at the door?
--- I’ve no idea. I just pretended nobody was at home. So I didn’t ask who ____ was.
A. he B. that C. she D. it
60. The editor-in-chief asked me to write another article for them, _____ about how to stay away from bird flu.
A. any B. one C. that D. each
1-5 ADDCA 6-10 CDCBD 11-15 AADBC 16-20 DDADD 21-25 BCDBD 26-30 DBBBA 31-35 BBDAC 36-40 BACBC 41-45 DBCAB 46-50 BCCAA 51-55 BCBAB 56-60 DCBDB
1. _________ environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the ecosystem (生态系统) to recover.
A. Even if B. If only C. While D. Once
2. Doris' success lies in the fact ___ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others
A. which B. that C. when D. why
3. You can find whatever you need at the shopping centre, ___ is always busy at the weekend.
A. that B. where C. what D. which
4. If you are traveling ______ the customs are really foreign to your own, please do as the Romans do.
A. in which B. what C. when D. where
5. I was given three books on cooking, the first _______ I really enjoyed.
A. of that B. of which C. of whose D. which
6. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class _______he had to meet his uncle at the air port.
A. why B that C. where D. because
7. ---Why didn't you tell him about the meeting?
---He rushed out of the room ______ I could say a word.
A. before B. until C. when D. after
8. The reason why he was late is ______ his clock didn’t give the alarm.
A. because B. due to C. since D. that
9. The police finally caught the man ______ was the escaped prisoner.
A. who they thought B. whom they thought
C. they thought him D. that they thought him
10. If the design was wrong, the project is sure to fail, ______ good all the other ideas might be.
A. whatever B. however C whatsoever D. even
11. I am pleased with what you have told me and ______ you have given me.
A. all what B. all that C. which D. all whatever
12. Hardly ____ come into the room ____ the meeting began.
A. had they; when B. they had; when
C. did they; than D. they did; then
13. I don't believe ____ he says now. He is a cheat.
A .no matter what B. everything C. whatever D. how
14. We called the First - Aid Center_______ the traffic accident happened.
A. immediately B. shortly C. quickly D. hurriedly
15. Dr. Bethune began to work _______ he arrived at the front.
A. for the moment B. by the time C. the time D. the moment
16. Michael used to look hurt and surprised when ________.
A scolding B to scold C having scolded D scolded
17. It is known to all that _____ you exercise regularly, you won’t keep good health.
A. unless B. whenever C. although D. if
18. Not until all the fish died in the river _____ how serious the pollution was.
A. did the villagers realize B. the villagers realized
C. the villagers did realize D. didn’t the villagers realize
19. So difficult _____ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English.
A. I have felt B. have I felt C. I did feel D. did I feel
20. You can't have this football back _______ you promise not to kick it at my cat again,“ the old man said firmly.
A. because B. since C. when D. until
21. I’d like to arrive 20 minutes early _______ I can have time for a cup of tea.
A. as soon as B. as a result C. in case D. so that
22. ---It’s thirty years since we last met．
---But I still remember the story, believe it or not, ______ we got lost on a rainy night.
A. which B. what C. that D. when
23. He often thinks of _______ he can do more for the four modernizations.
A. what B. how C. that D. which
24 We cannot figure out _______ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out.
A. that B. as C. why D. when
25. The cost of living in Glasgow is among the lowest in Britain, ______the quality of life is probably one of the highest.
A. since B. when C. as D. while
26. At last the soldiers reached ________ the locals called the Golden Triangle.
A. that B. where C. when D. what
27. –I can’t find Mr. Smith. Where did you meet him this morning?
--It was in his office ________ he worked.
A. where B. which C. that D. the one
28. Allow children the space to voice their opinions, _________ they are different from your own.
A. until B. even if C. unless D. as though
29. ---How far apart do they live?
--- ______I know, they live in the same neighborhood.
A. As long as B. As far as C. As well as D. As often as
30. ---How long do you think it will be ______ China sends a manned spaceship to the moon.
---Perhaps two or three years.
A. when B. until C. that D. before
31. _________ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships.
A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever
32. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer _________ it was 20 years ago, ________ it was so poorly equipped.
A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that
33. –Do you have anything to say for yourselves?
--Yes, there is one point _______ we must insist on.
A. why B. where C. how D. /
34. We’re just trying to reach a point ____ both sides will sit down to talk.
A. where B. that C. when D. which
35. The wrong you’ve done him is terrible, for _______ in my opinion you should make an apology to him.
A. this B. which C. what D. that
36. That art center is ________ used to be a factory, ________ millions of tractors were made.
A. what; where B. where; where C. what; which D. where; which
37. He is the only one of the students who ________ a winner of scholarship for three years.
A. is B. are C. have been D. has been
38. The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at _______ I thought was a dangerous speed.
A. as B. which C. what D. that
39. You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is _______ I disagree.
A. why B. where C. what D. how
40. _______ you’ve tried it, you can’t imagine how pleasant it is.
A. Unless B. Because C. Although D. When
41. _____________ I know the money is safe, I shall not worry about it.
A. Even though B. Unless C. While D. As long as
42. John is the tallest boy in the class, ___________ according to himself.
A. five feet eight as tall as B. as tall as five feet eight
C. as five feet eight tall as D. as tall five feet eight as
43. The article is written in such easy English____ all of us can read.
A. that B. which C. as D. so that
44. As soon as he comes back, I’ll tell him when _________ and see him.
A. you will come B. will you come C. you come D. do you come
45. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to.
A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which
46. The place ________ the bridge is supposed to be built should be ________ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest.
A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which
47. As far as I am concerned, education is about learning and the more you learn, ________.
A. the more for life are you equipped B. the more equipped for life you are
C. the more life you are equipped for D. you are equipped the more for life
48. The American Civil War lasted four years_______ the North won in the end.
A. after B. before C. when D. then
49. He is difficult to make friends with, but his friendship, ________, is more true than any other.
A. once gained B. when to gain C. after is gained D. while gaining
50. Doctors have said that as many as 50% of patients don’t take medicine ________
A. like directed B. to be directed C. as directed D. so that directed
51. He is such a lazy man ________ nobody wants to work with ________.
A. as; him B. that; / C. as; / D. whom; him
52. You may do anything you like ____________ it is not against the law.
A. even if B. so long as C. unless D. as soon as
53. --- It’s a long time _____ I saw you last.
--- Yes, and what a pity it is since it will be a long time _______ we see each other again.
A. before, since B. when, when C. since, before D. when, after
54. Those college students will go ______ they are needed after graduation.
A. to where B. to place C. wherever D. to wherever
55. She always takes careful notes in class ______ she may review them from time to time.
A. so that B. in order to C. because of D. rather than
56. ______ has recently been done to improve the conditions of elementary schools, a great number of children are unable to go to school.
A. That B. What C In spite of what D. Though what
57. ______, they could find nobody in the house.
A. As they would search B. Would as they search
C Search as they would D. They would search as
58. The story of his upbringing is shocking ______.
A. to all that read it B. to all who reads it
C. to all which read it D. to whomever reads it
59. ______ these questions may sound academic, answers to them could have profound economic and political significance.
A. Since B. If C. While D. Lest
60. This old computer must have been of great use to _______ did the scientific research.
A. those B. when C. whoever D. whomever
61. Each blind man believed ____ he knew just ____ the elephant looked like.
A. that; what B. what; that C. that; that D. what; what
62. It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
A. that B. which C. as D. it
63. – Whose English notebook is it?
-- Oh, Mr. Johnson, that’s mine. It is ______ one _____ I lost last Friday.
A. the same, to B. the same, as C. the same, with D. the same, that
64. -Is that the small town you often refer to?
-Right, just the one _______ you know I used to work for years.
A．that B．which C．where D．what
65. A warm thought suddenly came to me _____ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday.
A. if B. when C. that D. which
1-5 DBDDB 6-10 BADAB 11-15 BACAD 16-20 DAADD 21-25 DCBCD 26-30 DABBD 31-35 DADAB 36-40 ADCBA 41-45 DBCAC 46-50 CBBAC 51-55 CBCCA 56-60 CCACC 61-65 ABDCC
1.Mike didn’t start ____ the importance of a foreign language till he graduated from school.
A. knowing B. to know C. know D. to have know
2.------- Why was a special meeting called ?
------_____ a new chairman.
A. To elect B. Electing C. Our electing D. Elected
3.----- Why did Bob sweep?
------He couldn’t bear _____ like that before the whole class.
A. making fun of B. being made fun of C. to be laugh at D. being made fun
4.At the shopping center ,he didn’t know what ____ and ____ with an empty bag.
A. to buy ; leave B. to be bought ; left C. to buy ; left D. was to buy ; leave
5.The students are forbidden , unless they have special passes ,_____ after 11 pm.
A. to stay out B. from staying out C. staying out D. not to stay out
6.The policeman put down the phone ,____ with a smile on his face.
A. satisfied B. satisfying C. to be satisfied D. having satisfied
7._____ , your composition is full of mistakes.
A. Writing carelessly B. Written carelessly
C. Having written carelessly D. Being written carelessly
8.She made a candle , ____ us light .
A. give B. gave C. to give D. given
9.------What do you suppose made her worried ?
----- _____ a gold ring.
A. Lose B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing
10.I know it’s not important , but I can’t help _____ about it.
A. to think B. and think C. thinking D. being thought
11.The food _____ at the moment is for the dinner party .
A. cooked B. to be cooked C. is being cooked D. being cooked
12. A kind old gentleman offered ____ my bags to the taxi stand .
A. his help carried B. carrying C. me to carry D. to help to carry
13. I could feel the wind ____ on my face from an open window .
A. to blow B. blowing C. to be blowing D. brown
14. ------What terrible weather ! I simply can’t get the car ____.
----- Why not try ____ the engine with some hot water.
A. started ; filling B. start ; filling C. started ; to fill D. to start ; fill
15. Nearly every great building in Beijing was built _____ south.
A. to face B. facing C. to have played D. being facing
16. As I am away for at least a year , I’d appreciate _____ from you now and then _____ me how everyone is getting along.
A. hearing ; tell B. to hear ; tell C. hearing ; telling D. to hear ; to tell
17. Such _____ the case , I couldn’t help but _____ him.
A. being ; support B. is ; to support C. has been ; supporting D. be ; supported
18.At the shopping center ,he didn’t know what ____ and ____ with an empty bag.
A. to buy ; leave B. to be bought ; left C. to buy ; left D. was to buy ; leave
19. In some parts of London, missing a bus means_________ for another hour.
A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. to be waiting
20. When_______, the museum will be open to the public next year.
A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
21.In order to make our city green, _________.
A. it is necessary to have planted more trees B. many more trees need to plant
C. our city needs more trees D. we must plant more trees
22.The teacher asked us ____ so much noise.
A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
23. ______time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player.
A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given
24.Mr. Smith, ______of the ______speech, started to read a novel.
A. tired; boring B. tiring ; bored C. tired ; bored D. tiring; boring
25.They're not very good, but we like______.
A. anyway to play basketball with them B. to play basketball with them anyway
C. to play with them basketball anyway D. with them to play basketball anyway
26.He sent me an e-mail, ________to get further information.
A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope
27.One learns a language by making mistakes and _________them.
A. correct B. correcting C. corrects D. to correct
28. Prices of daily goods _________through a computer can be lower than store prices.
A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying
29. You will find the word “psychology” _____ under “P” in the dictionary.
A. have listed B. list C. listed D. listing
30.Sandy could do nothing but ____ to his mother that he was wrong.
A. admitting B. admits C. admit D. to admit
1.- What do you think made Mary so upset? (上海)
-______her new bicycle.
A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing
2.The computer center, _____last year, is very popular among the students. (NMET 1997)
A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened
3. Finding her car stolen, _________.（. 上海）
A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searched thoroughly
C. it was looked for everywhere D. she hurried to a policeman
4 He hurried to the hospital ____ his breakfast ____.（NEPCS. 江苏初赛卷）
A. left… unfinished B. leaving… unfinished C. leaving…unfinishing D. left… unfinishing
5.______ mud on his trousers brushes off easily.
A. Drying B. Having dried C. Being dry D. Dried
6. Quite a few people used to believe that disaster ______if a mirror was broken.
A. was certain of striking B. was certain of having struck
C. was certain to be struck D. was certain to strike
7.Though ______money, his parents managed to send him to university. (.上海.33)
A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in
8. Don't use words, expressions, or phrases________ only to people, with specific knowledge.
A. being known B. having been known . C. to be known D. known
9. He had no money _____ a birthday present for her children.
A. to buy with B. buying C. bought D .with which to buy
10. A doctor can expect ____ at any hour of the day or night .
A. calling B. to call C. being called D. to be called
11. With his son _____ , the old man felt _______.
A. to be disappointed/disappointed B. disappointing/disappointed
C. being disappointed/disappointed D. to disappoint/disappointed
12. It was ______ computer games that cost the boy a lot of the time that he ought to have spent on his lessens.
A. to have played B. playing C. played D. having played
13.And there , almost_____ in the big chair , sat her little brother , who never had to be told to keep quiet.
A. having lost B. losing C. to be lost D. lost
14. _____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin.
A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
15. From the dates ____ on the gold coins, it is conformed that it was made five hundred years ago .
A. marking B. marked C. to be marked D. having been marked
16. The students expected there _____ more reviewing classes before the final exams.
A. is B. to be C. being D. have been
17.____ all over the hill and around the lake are wild flowers of different kinds.
A. To grow B. Growing C. Grown D. Grow
18. You can hardly imagine the difficulty the woman had _____ her children .
A. brought up B. to bring up C. bringing up D. to have brought up
19. ------ Where should I send my form ?
------ The Personnel office is the place _____ .
A. for sending it B. to send it to C. to send D. to send it
20. She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role _______in making the earth a better place to live. 【.上海春招，38】
A. to have played B. to play C. to be played D. to be playing
21. Tony was very unhappy for _______to the party. 【2000.上海.40】
A. having not been invited B. not having invited
C. having not invited D. not having been invited
22. ]______ the airport, I found Mary ______ to meet me.
A. On reaching, waiting for B. On arriving at, waiting
C. Getting, to be waiting D. Arriving in, to wait
23.The weather is ________ cold.
A. freezing B. frozen C. freeze D. froze
24.________ what he was asked to, he decided to stay behind.
A. Having not finished B. Not finished C. Not having finished D. Not finishing
25.How fine ______ hands like a man.
A. your B. it is to have C. you have D. are you
26.The mother heard her son shouting and ______ out as quickly as possible.
A. go B. went C. going D. gone
27.Robert is said ____ abroad , but I don’t know what country he studied in .
A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studied
28. ____ some of this juice- perhaps you’ll like it. ( NMET2000 年)北京、安徽春招)
A. Trying B. Try C. To try D. Having tried
29. There are five pairs ____ , but I’m at a loss which to buy. ( NMET99上海高考)
A. to be chosen B. to chose from C. to choose D. for choosing
30. How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?
--The key________ the problem is to meet the demand_______ by the customers.
A. to solving; making B. to solving; made C to solve; making D. to solve; made
1.Which do you enjoy ____ your weekends, fishing or watching TV?
A. spending B. to spend C. being spent D. spend
2.____ Sunday , the students are at home.
A. Being B. To be C. It is D. It being
3. All the things ____ , his proposal is of greater value than yours.
A. considered B. considering C. to consider D. consider
4. He hurried to the station ,____ the 9:30 train had already left .
A. to find B. found C. only to find D. only finding
5. _____ time and labor ,cartoonists generally draw the hands of the characters with only 3 fingers and a thumb.
A. To save B. Saved C. Saving D. Having saved
6. The story ____ by the writer is very _____ with many middle school students in China.
A. . /… popular B. written… welcome C. writing… agreed D. wrote… pleased
7. Can you imagine a little boy ____ a stranger _____ into the house and _____ a box away?
A. notice… enter… steal B. watching… come… taking
C. found…going…get D. seeing… steal… carry
8.____ what he had done, he hung his head and said nothing.
A. To be asked B. When asked C. Having asked D. When asking
9. ____he said _____to hurt you.
A. That , didn’t mean B. Which, meant C. What, didn’t mean D. As, meant
10.He made another window ____ more air.
A. get B. getting C. to get D. be getting
11. I was much disappointed to see the watch I had had ______stopped again.
A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired
12.There is something wrong with the machine. Can you get it _____?
A. gone B. to go C. going D. to be going
13. His house was damaged by a ________ tree on a stormy night.
A. fallen B. falling C. to fall D. fell
14.The teacher forbids______ during the examination.
A. talking B. to talk C. us to talk D. A or C
15.At his appearance on the stage again, they had _______ feelings of ______ and joy.
A. mixing, surprising B. mixture, surprised C. mixed, surprise D. mix, surprise
16. She dislikes _______ in public.
A. to be made fun of B. being made fun C. being made fun of D. to be made fun
17. We must________ pollution ________ more happily.
A. prevent, from living B. stop, living C. prevent, to live D. keep, living
18.The girl spent as much time as she ______ her lessons.
A. could going B. could go over C. went over D. goes over
19.He stood on the roof for a while and then ______ down.
A. jumping B. to jump C. jumped D. was jumping
20. I was cycling in the street when I heard an old woman _____ out a _____ cry and then saw her bleeding badly.
A. give, frightening B. give, frightened C. to give, frightening D. to give, frightened
21.She looked forward to his coming back as much as he himself ______ her.
A. to see B. to seeing C. saw D. seeing
22. Friendship is like money: easier made than ________. (2003 .上海春招, 35)
A. kept B. to be kept C. keeping D. being kept
23._______ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement.
A. The president will attend B. The president to attend
C. The president attended D. The president's attending
24.Unless________ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference.
A. invited B. inviting C. being invited D. having invited
25. The discovery of new evidence led to ______.
A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief
C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught
26.Generally speaking, ____ according to the directions, the drug has no side effect.
A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken
27An army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered ____ clear warnings before firing any shots. (2003.上海,43)
A. to issue B. being issued C. to have issued D. to be issued
28. ____the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation.
A. Given B. To give C. Giving D. Having given
29. As we joined the big crow I get _____ from my friend.
A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed
30. How about the two of us _______ a walk down the garden.
A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking
Keys. 基础过关题1-5 BABCA 6-10 ABCCC 11-15 DDBAB 16-20 CACAA
21-25 DDDAB 26-30 BBBCC
能力提高题 1-5 CDDBD 6-10 DCDDD 11-15 BBDCB 16-20 BBCBB
21-25 DBACB 26-30 BABBB
高考冲刺题 1-5 BABCA 6-10 ABCCC 11-15 DDBAB 16-20 CACAA
21-25 DDDAB 26-30 BBBCC
2） 情态动词除ought 和have 外，后面只能接不带to 的不定式。
21.2 比较can 和be able to
1）can/could 表示能力；可能 （过去时用could）, 只用于现在式和过去式（could）。be able to可以用于各种时态。例如：
They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。
2）只用be able to的情况：
e. 表示成功地做了某事时，用was/were able to，不能用could。例如：
He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out. = He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out.
--- Could I have the television on? 我能看电视吗？
--- Yes, you can. / No, you can't. 可以/不可以。
He couldn't be a bad man. 他不大可能是坏人。
1） 表示允许或请求；表示没有把握的推测；may 放在句首，表示祝愿。例如：
May God bless you! 愿上帝保佑你！
He might be at home. 他可能在家。
注意：might 表示推测时，不表示时态，只是可能性比may 小。
2） 成语：may/might as well，后面接不带to 的不定式，意为”不妨“。例如：
If that is the case, we may as well try.如果情况确实如此，我们不妨试一试。
Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.
A. must B. may C. can D. will
21.4 比较have to和must
1） 两词都是'必须'的意思，have to 表示客观的需要，must 表示说话人主观上的看法，既主观上的必要。例如：
My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night.
He said that they must work hard. 他说他们必须努力工作。（主观上要做这件事）
2） have to有人称、数、时态的变化，而must只有一种形式。但must 可用于间接引语中表示过去的必要或义务。例如：
He had to look after his sister yesterday. 他昨晚只得照顾他姐姐。
3） 否定结构中：don't have to表示”不必“，mustn't表示”禁止“。例如：
You don't have to tell him about it. 你不一定要把此事告诉他。
You mustn't tell him about it. 你不得把这件事告诉他。
2） must表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时，must 后面通常接系动词be 的原形或行为动词的进行式。例如：
You have worked hard all day. You must be tired. 你辛苦干一整天，一定累了。（对现在情况的推测判断）
He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。
比较：He must be staying there. 他现在肯定在那里。
He must stay there. 他必须呆在那。
3） must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时，must 要接完成式。例如：
I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话，我想必是睡着了。
4） must表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测，must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。例如：
---Why didn't you answer my phone call? 为何不接我的电话？
---Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it.唉，肯定在睡觉，所以没有听见。
If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 如果汤姆五点才离开这儿，他此时一定还未到家。
can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测，其用法如下：
I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan. 我不知道她在哪儿，可能在武汉。
At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. 这时，想必我们老师正在批改试卷。
The road is wet. It must have rained last night. 地是湿的，昨天晚上一定下雨了。
Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。
Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning.
注意：could, might表示推测时不表示时态，其推测的程度不如can, may。
21.7 情态动词+ have +过去分词
1） may（might） have + done sth, can （could） have + done sth 表示过去，推测过去时间里可能发生的事情。例如：
Philip may （might） have been hurt seriously in the car accident. 菲力浦可能在车祸中受了重伤。
Philip can （could） have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
2） must have +done sth，对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测，语气较强，具有”肯定“，”谅必“的意思。例如：
---Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here. 琳达已经去上班了，但她的单车还在这儿。
---She must have gone by bus.肯定乘巴士去的。
3） ought to have done sth, should have done sth表示本应该做某事，而事实上并没有做。否定句表示”不该做某事而做了“。例如：
You ought to （should） have been more careful in this experiment. 你当时在做试验时应该更仔细点。
He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.他不该把旧衣服扔了。（事实上已扔了。）
ought to 在语气上比should 要强。
4） needn't have done sth表示本没必要做某事，但做了。例如：
I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot.
5） would like to have done sth表示本打算做某事，但没做。例如：
I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then. 我想读这篇文章，但太忙了一直没读。
17.8 21.8 should 和ought to
I ought to be able to live on my salary. 靠我的薪水，想必也能维持了。
It ought to be ready now. 想必现在准备好了吧。
They should be there by now, I think. 现在他们该到那儿了。
The poems should be out in a month at most. 诗集估计最多还有一个月就要出版了。
21.9 had better表示”最好“，相当于一个助动词，它只有一种形式，它后面要跟动词原形。例如：
It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat. 天相当冷。你最好穿上我的外套。
She'd better not play with the dog. 她最好不要玩耍那条狗。
had better have done sth表示与事实相反的结果，意为”本来最好“。例如：
You had better have come earlier. 你本该来得早一点。
21.10 would rather表示”宁愿“
would rather do
would rather not do
would rather… than… 宁愿…而不愿。
还有would sooner, had rather, had sooner都表示”宁愿“、”宁可“的意思。例如：
If I have a choice, I had sooner not continue my studies at this school. 如果有选择的余地，我宁可辍学离开这个学校。
I would rather stay here than go home. = I would stay here rather than go home. 我宁愿呆在这儿，而不愿回家。
----Shall we go skating or stay at home?
----Which ___ do?
A. do you rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather
答案B。本题考查情态动词rather的用法，would rather +do sth 意为”宁愿“，本题为疑问句，would 提前，所以选B。
注意：1）would like；would like to do = want to 想要，为固定搭配。例如：
Would you like to go with me? 想和我一块去吗？
2）Will you…? Would you like…? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时，疑问句中一般用some, 而不是any。例如：
Would you like some cake? 吃点蛋糕吧。
3）否定结构中用will，一般不用would, won't you是一种委婉语气。
Won't you sit down? 你不坐下吗？
问句 肯定回答 否定回答
Need you…? Yes, I must. No, I needn't
Must you…? No, I don't have to.
1）---Could I borrow your dictionary?
---Yes, of course, you____.
A. might B. will C. can D. should
答案C. could表示委婉的语气，并不为时态。答语中of course，表示肯定的语气，允许某人做某事时，用can和 may来表达，不能用could或might。will 与you连用，用来提出要求或下命令。should与you 连用，用来提出劝告。
2）---Shall I tell John about it?
---No, you ___. I've told him already.
A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't
答案A。needn't 不必，不用。 wouldn't 将不, 不会的。 mustn't 禁止、不能。 shouldn't 不应该。本题为不需要，不必的意思，应用needn't。
3）---Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.
A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't
21.13 带to 的情态动词
带to 的情态动词有四个：ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上have got to （=must）, be able to，为六个。它们的疑问、否定形式应予以注意：
Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month?
She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen.
You ought not to have told her all about it.
Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.?
ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用，变疑问，否定时，须有do 等助动词协助。
Tom ought not to ___ me your secret, but he meant no harm.
A. have told B. tell C. be telling D. having told
答案A。由于后句为过去时，告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因，此地应用过去完成时，但它在情态动词 ought to 后，所以用have told。
这两词既可做实义动词用，又可做情态动词用。作为情态动词，两者都只能用于疑问句，否定句和条件句。need 作实义动词时后面的不定式必须带to，而dare作实义动词用时, 后面的to 时常可以被省略。
1） 实义动词：need（需要, 要求） need + n. / to do sth
2） 情态动词：need，只用原形need后加do，否定形式为need not。例如：
Need you go yet? 你要走了吗？
Yes, I must. / No, I needn't.是的，我要走了/不，不急着走。
There is much water in the thermos.
Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.
Reading and writing are very important. 读写很重要。
The iron and steel industry is very important to our life. 钢铁工业对我们的生活有重要意义。
The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
答案B. 注： 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时，先排除A.，C。本题易误选D，因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人，但仔细辨别，monitor 前没有the，在英语中，当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人，所以应选B。
1）当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时，谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。例如：
There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. 桌上有一支笔、一把小刀和几本书。
There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.班上有二十个男孩，二十三个女孩。
2）当either… or… 与neither… nor，连接两个主语时，谓语动词与最邻近的主语保持一致。如果句子是由here, there引导，而主语又不止一个时，谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。例如：
Either you or she is to go. 不是你去，就是她去。
Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you. 给你笔、信封和纸。
当主语有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词组成的短语时，谓语动词与前面的主语部分一致。例如：
The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory. 教师和一些学生在参观工厂。
He as well as I wants to go boating.他和我想去划船。
1）代词each以及由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语时，或主语中含有each, every时, 谓语需用单数。例如：
Each of us has a tape-recorder. 我们每人都有录音机。
There is something wrong with my watch. 我的表坏了。
The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English. 《天方夜谭》是英语爱好者熟悉的一本书。
Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. 用三个星期来做准备。
Ten yuan is enough. 十元够了。
1）代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。例如：
All is right. 一切顺利。
All are present. 人都到齐了。
2）集体名词作主语时，谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后，谓语动词用复数形式时强调这个集体中的各个成员，用单数时强调该集体的整体。例如：
His family isn't very large. 他家成员不多。
His family are music lovers. 他家个个都是音乐爱好者。
但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。例如：
Are there any police around? 附近有警察吗？
3）有些名词，如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数，有时看作复数。例如：
A number of +名词复数+复数动词。
The number of +名词复数+单数动词。
A number of books have lent out.
The majority of the students like English.
1）用half of, most of, none of, heaps of, lots of, plenty of 等引起主语时，谓语动词通常与of后面的名词/代词保持一致。例如：
Most of his money is spent on books. 他大部分的钱化在书上了。
Most of the students are taking an active part in sports. 大部分学生积极参与体育运动。
2）用a portion of, a series of, a pile of, a panel of 等引起主语时，谓语动词通常用单数。例如：
A series of accidents has been reported. 媒体报道了一连串的事故。
A pile of lots was set beside the hearth. 炉边有一堆木柴。
3）如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的短语作主语时，谓语动词多用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时，动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。例如：
Many a person has read the novel. 许多人读过这本书。
More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生来自这个城市。
1.Each of you ______ responsible for the accident.
a. am b. be c. is d. are
2.Each man and woman ______ the same rights.
a. has b. have c. had d. is having
3.Every means ______ tried but without much result.
a. has been b. have been c. are d. is
4.There ______ in this room.
a. are too much furniture b. is too many furnitures
c. are too much furnitures d. is too much furniture
5.The manager or his assistant ______ planning to go.
a. were b. are c. was d. be
6.Not only I but also David and Iris ______ fond of playing basketball.
a. am b. is c. are d. was
7.Neither Tom nor his parents ______ at home.
a. is b. are c. has d. was
8.Either the dean or the principal ______ the meeting.
a. attends b. attend c. are attending d. have attended
9.______ was wrong.
a. Not the teacher but the students b. Both the students and the teacher
c. Neither the teacher not the students d. Not the students but the teacher
10.“______ twenty dollars a big sum to her?”
“I suppose so.”
a. Will be b. Is c. Are d. Were
11.Three hours ______ enough for us to finish the task.
a. are b. has c. is d. were
12.Most of his savings ______ in the Xin Hua Bank.
a. has been kept b. is being kept c. have kept d. have been kept
13.All that can be done ______.
a. has done b. has been done c. have done d. have been done
14.One or perhaps more pages _______.
a. is missing b. has been missed c. are missing d. was missing
15.More than one worker ______ dismissed.
a. have been b. are c. has been d. has
16.Many a student ______ the importance of learning a foreign language.
a. have realized b. has realize c. have been realized d. has been realized
17.The gas works ______ near the city.
a. is b. are c. were d. be
18.The surroundings of his house ______ clean now.
a. is b. are c. was d. were
19.The committee ______ over the problem among themselves for two hours.
a. has argued b. has been arguing c. have argued d. have been arguing
20.The public ______ generous in their contributions to the earthquake victims.
a. is b. was c. are d. has been
21.Cattle ______ on the hillside.
a. grazes b. is grazing c. was grazing d. were grazing
22.Her politics ______ neither conservative nor liberal.
a. is b. are c. was d. has been
23.Measles ______ a kind of infectious illness.
a. is b. are c. were d. have been
24.The Philippines ______ to the south-east of China.
a. lies b. lie c. lay d. lays
25.Mary is one of the girls who ______ always on time.
a. is b. am c. are d. was
26.Tom is the only one of the stall members who ______ to be promoted.
a. is going b. are going c. has been going d. have been going
27.What caused the accident ______ on the road.
a. were stone b. were stones c. was stone d. was stones
28.Wisky and soda ______ his favorite drink.
a. is b. are c. were d. have been
29.______ is to attend our evening.
a. both the singer and the dancer b. Either the singer or dancers
c. The singer or dancers d. The singer and dancer
30.The Smiths ______ their breakfast when the morning post came.
a. had b. has been having c. are having d. were having
31.No one except two students ______ the meeting.
a. has been late for b. have been late for c. was late for d. were later for
32.All but him and me ______ to the exhibition.
a. am going b. is going c. are going d. was going
33.Interest, as well as prospects, ______ important when one looks for a job.
a. are b. were c. is d. was
34.The president, accompanied by his assistants, ______.
a. have arrived b. are arriving c. had arrived d. has arrived
35.A number of cars ______ in front of the park
a. is parked b. was parked c. are parked d. has parked
36.the number of articles published on smoking ______ amazing.
a. is b. are c. were d. have been
37.The majority of doctors ______ smoking is harmful to health.
a. are believed b. had believed c. has believed d. believe
38.The majority of the damage ______ easy to repair.
a. is b. are c. were d. be
39.Four-fifths of the crop ______.
a. are ruined b. was ruined c. were ruined d. have been ruined
40.Three-fourths of the buildings ______.
a. was destroyed b. is destroyed c. were destroyed d. has been destroyed
41.Early to bed and early to rise ______ a man healthy, happy and wise.
a. making b. to make c. make d. makes
42.Mathematics ______ the language of science.
a. is b. has been c. are d. have been
43.The young ______ the vital forces in our society.
a. is b. has been c. are d. have been
44.Every man, woman and child ______ some history, enough at least, to survive in the world.
a. knows b. know c. is known d. are known
45.None of them ______ my friends.
a. is b. are c. was d. has been
46.Not only the whole nation, but the whole Europe , indeed the whole human society ______ to alter its attitude to racial problems.
a. need b. needs c. has a need d. have a need
47.Getting to other planets or to the moon _____ many problems.
a. involve b. involves c. involving d. to involve
48.In that country, the rich ______ richer, the poor, poorer.
a. become b. has become c. becomes d. is becoming
49.The project requires more labor than ______ because it is extremely difficult.
a. has been put in b. have been put in c. being put in d. to be put in
50.Not one in one hundred children exposed to the disease ______ likely to develop it.
a. should be b. must be c. is d. are
1 C 19 D 37 D
2 A 20 C 38 A
3 A 21 D 39 B
4 D 22 B 40 C
5 C 23 A 41 D
6 C 24 A 42 D
7 B 25 C 43 C
8 A 26 A 44 A
9 D 27 D 45 B
10 B 28 A 46 B
11 C 29 D 47 B
12 D 30 D 48 A
13 B 31 C 49 A
14 C 32 C 50 C
15 C 33 C 51
16 B 34 D 52
17 A 35 C 53
18 B 36 A 54
时态语态 主动 被动
一般式 to do to be done
进行式 to be doing /
完成式 to have done to have been done
完成进行式 to have been doing /
afford aim agree arrange ask decide
bother care choose demand desire determine
elect endeavor hope fail help learn
long 渴望 mean manage offer plan pretend
refuse tend undertake expect hate intend
The driver failed to see the other car in time. 司机没能及时看见另一辆车。
He offered to help me. 他表示愿意帮助我。
ask choose expect help beg intend
like/love need prefer prepare want wish
I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。
I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你使每件东西都保持整洁。
I want to speak to Tom. 我想和汤姆谈话。
I want you to speak to Tom. 我想让你和汤姆谈话。
decide know consider forget learn remember
show, wonder find out tell inquire explain
Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。
There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.
advise allow cause challenge command compel
drive 驱使 enable encourage forbid force impel
induce instruct invite like/love order permit
make let have want get warn
persuade request send tell train urge
Father will not allow us to play on the street. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
The officer ordered his men to fire. 长官命令士兵开火。
consider find believe think declare（声称） appoint
guess fancy（设想） guess judge imagine know
We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。
We know him to be a fool. 我们知道他是个笨蛋。（to be 不能省去）
Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer.
A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented
3) 有些动词可以跟there +to be的结构。例如：
believe expect intend like love mean
prefer want wish understand
We didn't expect there to be so many people there. 我们没料到会有那么多人在那里。
You wouldn’t want there to be another war. 你不至于想让另外一场战争发生吧。
例如：It's so nice to hear your voice. 听到你的声音真高兴。
It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it. 不用车的时候，锁车是有必要的。
It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们，他真好。
It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西，这显得太自私了。
但是，用不定式作主语的句子中还有一个不定式作表语时，不能用It is… to…的句型。另外，这样的句子，不能用动名词作表语。例如：
（对）To teach is to learn.
（错）It is to learn to teach.
（错）To teach is learning.
（错）Teaching is to learn.
The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___.
A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on
7.4 It's for sb.和 It's of sb.
1）for sb. 句型中的形容词一般为表示事物的特征特点，表示客观形式的形容词，如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等：例如：
It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。
2）of sb句型中的形容词一般为表示性格，品德，心智能力，表示主观感情或态度的形容词，如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。例如：
It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我，你真是太好了。
You are nice. （通顺，所以应用of）。
He is hard. （非所表达的意思，不通，因此用for。）
My work is to clean the room every day. 我的工作是每天清扫房间。
His dream is to be a doctor. 他的梦想是成为一名医生。
I have a lot of work to do. 我有许多事要做。
There was nothing to bring home that morning. 那天早上（他回家时）两手空空。
常用结构为to do , only to do（仅仅为了）, in order to do, so as to do, so（such）… as to…（如此…以便…）。例如：
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。
I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。
I awoke to find my truck gone. 我醒来发现箱子不见了。
He searched the room only to find nothing. 他搜索了房间，没发现什么。
I'm glad to see you. 见到你很高兴。
She wept to see the sight. 她一看到这情形就哭了。
He must be a fool to say so.
You will do well to speak more carefully.
to 可以用作介词，也可用作不定式的标示。下面的to 都用作介词：
admit to object to be accustomed to be used to stick to turn to开始
look forward to be devoted to pay attention to contribute to apologize to devote oneself to
7.9 省去to 的动词不定式
1） 情态动词 （ 除ought 外） 后。
2） 使役动词 let, have, make后，感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后。
I saw him dance. 我看见他跳舞。
=He was seen to dance.
The boss made them work the whole night. 老板让他们整夜干活。
=They were made to work the whole night.
3） would rather，had better句型后
4） Why… / why no…句型后
5） help 后可带to，也可不带to, help sb （to） do sth：
比较：He wants to do nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。
He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine. 除了吃这药，他什么都信。
7） 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式，第二个to 可以省去：
8） 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think等词后作宾补时，可以省去to be。例如：
He is supposed （to be） nice. 他应该是个好人。
1） ---- I usually go there by train.
---- Why not ___ by boat for a change?
A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going
答案：D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式，因此选D。
2） Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard.
A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning
答案：B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式，当其用于被动时，to 不可省略。
Tell him not to shut the window。让他别关窗。
She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候，她假装没看见。
1）Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking.
A. never to drive B. to never driver C. never driving D. never drive
答案：A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.
2） The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street，but his mother told him ____.
A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
答案：A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式。可以只用to这个词，而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有宾语，因此也B，D不对。
He is too excited to speak. 他太激动了，说不出话来。
---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?
---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same.
2） 如在too前有否定词，则整个句子用否定词表达肯定，too 后那个词表达一种委婉含义，意 为”不太“。例如：
It's never too late to mend. 改过不嫌晚。（谚语）
3） 当too 前面有only, all, but时，意思是：非常… 等于very。例如：
I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 能帮助你我非常高兴。
He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。
7.12 不定式的特殊句型so as to
1） 表示目的；它的否定式是so as not to do。例如：
Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job.汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。
Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.轻点进去，别惊醒了婴儿。
Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? 劳驾，现在几点了。
7.13 不定式的特殊句型Why not
”Why not +动词原形“表达向某人提出建议，翻译为：”为什么不……?“ ”干吗不……?“。例如：
Why not take a holiday? 干吗不去度假?
He seems to know this. 他似乎知道这事。
I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。
I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble. 很抱歉，给你添了那么多的麻烦。
He seems to have caught a cold. 他好像已经得了感冒。
He seems to be eating something. 他好像正在吃什么东西。
She is known to have been working on the problem for many years. 我们知道她研究这问题有好几年了。
2.反身代词:myself ,yourself ,himself ,herself ,itself ,ourselves ,yourselves
3.指示代词:this ,that ,these ,those
4.疑问代词:who ,whom ,what ,which
5.相互代词:each other ,one another
6.不定代词:some ,any ,all ,both ,none ,one, each ,either ,neither ,other ,another,
something ,anything ,nothing ,anyone ,anybody , someone ,somebody ,nobody
7.关系代词(用于定语从句):who ,whom ,whose，that ,which ,as
This isnt my book. Its his. Mine is in the bag. /Is she a friend of yours ?/Do
you think this bag of mine beautiful ?/She lost some pencils of hers.
①(all)by oneself 自己单干，独立干：
The boy usually finishes his homework by himself.
②of oneself 自动地，自行地：
Mary will correct her mistakes in the exercises of herself.
③for oneself 替/为自己：You have to choose for yourself.
The water of the well is cleaner than that of the river./The Christmas cards are
much better than those you bought yesterday.
4.相互代词each other ,one another.前者通常指两者之间的“相互”，后者侧重三者或三
If you have any ink ,please give me some.
Edison became quite expert at it and could find work in any town he went to.
of…后的谓语可以是单数或复数形式。none可以简略回答以How many或How much开头
None of them have/has failed.
-- How many books are there on the desk ? -- None.
注意：no one (＝nobody)不同于none ,作主语时只能跟单数谓语，不可跟of短语连用，
回答以who开头的问句，不能回答How many/much …开头的问句。
-- Who is in the room ? -- no one(＝Nobody).
--Is there any oil in the glass ? -- None.
③other ,another ,the other ,others ,the others
I dont like this hat ,please show me another.
I have two sisters.One is a student and the other is a worker./I can see only
two teachers in the office.Where are the other teachers ?
Thirty students in our class are boys ,the others are girls.
Some are carrying water ,others are watering the trees.
I have bought a new bike.My old one doesnt work./One must do ones duty.
This book is the one that is needed by him.
My seat is next to that of our teacher.
1.-- When shall we meet again ?
-- Make it _____ day you like;its all the same to me.(高考题)
A．one B．any C．some D．another
析： 此题答案为B。若选A，one day意“过去/将来的某一天”；若选C,some day意“有朝一日”、“将来某一天”、“迟早”；若选D，another day意“改日”、“又/另一天”；选B，any day意“随便哪一天”、“无论哪一天”，显然它适合此题。
2.Im reading a new book these days ,_____ in English.
A.it B.that C.one D.which
析： 排除A选项it的原因是因为it前或后都不可放定语；若选B项that,则因其不能替代同一事物，也可排除；至于D项which，因其是定语从句引导词，在此明显不合用。只有C项one一方面它可有前置或后置定语，另一方面它可以替代前面出现的名词a book,故是正确答案。
3.There were two boys who called and I gave an apple to _____.
A.every B.all C.either D.each
4.We dont know _____ of the visitors here;we only know some.
A.everyone B.every one C.anybody D.each one
析： 因为everyone ,everybody ,anybody等不定代词一般不带限定语（此处不能与of短语连用），故A、C选项可排除。若选D项，因not…each结构表全否定，与下句“we only know some”不合，故不能成立。只有选B时，not…every表半否定，与下句意相合。
5.Young people may grow quickly in some ways and more slowly in _____.
A.the other B.some other C.others D.those other
析： 根据in some ways（在某些方面），可知空白处要选表达复数意义的词，据此可排除A、B；又因为没有those other这样的词语，故可排除D。根据some常与others相呼应使用规律，可定C为正确答案。
6.The question is too difficult and we found _____.
A.it not easy to answer it B.it was not easy for us to answer it
C.its not easy to answer D.it not easy to answer
析： 根据时态一致规律，we found后不可跟C选项；要表达“那个问题不容易答。”这一意思时，应说The question is not easy to answer.要表达“我们发现那个问题不容易答。”这一意思时，应说We found the question (was)not easy to answer.据此可排除A、B选项；只有D才是唯一正确选项。
7.The hairdresser now cuts _____ mens and womens hair.
A.any B.each C.both D.either
析： 根据题干mens and womens hair ,可知应选与两者有关的代词，于是立即可排除A。由于each 和either不可直接修饰复数名词或复数名词所有格（应说each of …,either of…）,故又可排除B、D选项。只有both才能与其后的and构成both…and…结构。故正确答案是C。
8.--Shall I sit at this end of the boat or the other end ?
--If you keep still ,you can sit at _____end. (NMET)
A.neither B.each C.either D.any
9.--Have you finished your report yet ?
--No ,Ill finish in _____ ten minutes. (NMET)
A.less B.more C.other D.another
析： less后可直接跟形容词、副词、名词，象ten minutes这样的“数词＋名词”短语则不可直接放于less之后，只能放于less than之后，因此A项可排除。“再过/再用十分钟”可以说in ten more minutes ,ten minutes more ,another ten minutes ,据此可排除B项。至于other一词，因它不能表达“再、又”意，故也可排除。因此D为正确答案。
10.Canada is larger than _____ country in Asia. (NMET)
A.any B.any other C.other D.another
析： 此题是加拿大与亚洲国家相比，无需other或another ,else这类词，故B、C、D应排除。因为any（任何）后可跟单数名词或复数名词，填入空白意思也合语境，所以A是正确答案。
1.-- Which of the two dictionaries will you borrow ?
-- Ill borrow _____ ,for the different uses.
A.all B.both C.either D.neither
2._____ of them knew about the plan because it was kept a secret.
A.Each B.Any C.No one D.None
3.We couldnt eat in a restaurant because _____ of us had _____ money on us.
A.all ;no B.any ;no C.none ;any D.no one ;any
4.They were all very tired ,but _____ of them would stop to take a rest.
A.neither B.none C.some D.any
5.There is a No.2 trolleybus and a No.24 bus ;_____ will take you there.
A.both B.either C.all D.any
6.As we were asleep ,_____ of us heard the sound.
A.both B.none C.either D.any
7.-- Which of the five may I use ?
-- Oh ,____.
A.any one B.anyone C.anything D.nothing
8.--Are the two answers correct ?
--No ,_____ correct.
A.no one is B.both are not C.neither is D.either is not
9.I asked him for some oil ,but he hadnt _____.
A.any B.some C.no D.anything
10.You have three English dictionaries ,but I have only two _____.
A.ones B.不填 C.the one D.the ones
11.I have a colour TV set.I want to sell ____.
A.one B.the one C.that D.it
12.This film is not so good as _____ we saw last week.
A.that B.it C.the one D.one
13._____ of us must go there and help him out.
A.One or other B.One by one
C.One or the other D.One or another
14.We all felt _____ to be the highest praise.
A.it B.that C.that one D.the one
15.Havent you read _____ English storices ?Please tell us an interesting one.
A.any B.all C.either D.some
16.-- Would you like _____ dumplings ?
A.some B.another C.any D.all
17.If there is _____ chance ,I will try another.
A.one B.any C.some D.all
18.-- Are _____ here to take the college entrance exam ?
-- Yes ,we _____.
A.all you ;are all B.you all ;all are
C.all of you ;are all D.you of all ;all are
19.Mr Green gave the textbooks to all the pupils except _____ who had already
A.one B.the ones C.some D.the others
20.-- Have you ever seen a snake alive ?
-- Yes ,Ive seen _____.
A.that B.so C.one D.it
21.-- Lily ,do you have an umbrella ?It is raining outside.
-- Yes ,but its _____.
A.small one B.small umbrella C.only a small one D.that one
22.Toms mother kept telling him that he should work hard ,but _____ didnt help.
A.this B.which C.any D.it
23.-- Have you got _____ red ink ?
-- Sorry ,I havent got _____.
A.some ;some B.any ;many C.some ;any D.any ;some
24.I prefer a street in a small town to _____ in such a large city as Shanghai.
A.that B.it C.this D.one
25.Sarad has read a lot of stories by American writers.Now she would like to
read _____ stories by writers from _____ countries.
A.some ;any B.other ;some C.some ;other D.other ;other
26.-- Is _____ here ?
-- No ,Bob and Tim have asked for leave.
A.anybody B.somebody C.everybody D.nobody
27.Our headmaster advised us that in order to succeed in life ,one has to be
honest with _____ friends.
A.their B.her C.ones D.our
28.I borrowed some books _____ myself ,but when I was going to read them ,the
lamp went out _____ itself and I had to sit in the dark _____ myself.
A.不填;for;by B.by;for;of C.for;of;by D.of;不填；by
29.When I first saw the old farmer ,I could hardly imagine _____ invented the
machine to pick cotton.
A.himself B.he himself C.he for himself D.he by himself
30.It is impossible for all the people to get the job ,because _____ of them
are not fit for it.
A.all of B.none of C.each of D.every one of
1－5 B D C B B 6－10 B A C A B
11－15 D C A B D 16－20 A B B B C
21－25 C D C D C 26－30 C C C B A
1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时，谓语动词一般用单数形式；主语为复数时，谓语动词用复数形式。如：His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.
注意：由what引导的主语从句，后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式，但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时，主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如：What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.
2、由连接词and或both … and连接起来的合成主语后面，要用复数形式的谓语动词。如：Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.
注意：① 若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时，它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如：The writer and artist has come.; / ② 由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时，其谓语动词要用单数形式。如：Every student and every teacher was in the room.. / No boy and no girl likes it.
3、主语为单数名词或代词，尽管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语，谓语动词仍用单数形式；若主语为复数，谓语用复数形式。如：Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.
4、either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词，都作单数看待。如：Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.
注意：① 在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词（或代词）”作主语时，其谓语动词也可用复数。如：Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. ② 若none of后面的名词是不可数名词，它的谓语动词就要用单数；若它后面的名词是复数，它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。如：None of us has (have) been to America.
5、在定语从句时，关系代词that, who, which等作主语时，其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如：He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.
6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体，它的谓语动词用单数；如果它指集体的成员，其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。如：Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.
注意：people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如：The police are looking for the lost child.
7、由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语，其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。如：There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.
注意： a number of“许多”，作定语修饰复数名词，谓语用复数；the number of“…的数量”，主语是number，谓语用单数。
8、在倒装句中，谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如：There comes the bus./ On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.
1、what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数，也可是复数，主要靠意思来决定。如：Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing.
2、表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时，谓语动词通常用单数形式， 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体，如：Thirty minutes is enough for the work.
3、若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式，其谓语动词通常用单数形式。如： “The Arabian Nights”is an interesting story-book.
4、表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时，其谓语动词可用单数形式（也可用复数。如：One and a half apples is (are) left on the table.
5、算式中表示数目（字）的主语通常作单数看待，其谓语动词采用单数形式。如：Twelve plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.
6、一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾，如：mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等，都属于形式上是复数的名词，实际意义为单数名词，它们作主语时，其谓语动词要用单数形式。如：The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn’t easy to study.
7、trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主语时，谓语用复数，但如果这些名词前有a (the) pair of等量词修饰时，谓语动词用单数。如：My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his.
8、“定冠词the + 形容词或分词”，表示某一类人时，动词用复数。
1、当两个主语由either … or, neither … nor, whether … or …, not only … but also连接时，谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。如：Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right?
2、there be句型be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语，则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。如：There are two chairs and a desk in the room..
1.I, who____ your friend, will try my best to help you with your English.
A.am B.is C.are D.be
2. The rich ____ not always happy.
A.are B.is C.has D.have
3. Neither Tom nor Jack and I ____ his students.
A.are B.am C.is D.was
4. Mary as well as her sisters ____ Chinese in China.
A. are studying B. have studied C. studies D. study
5. Neither my father nor I ____ at home.
A.am B.is C.are D.be
6. Not only my brother but also I ____ good at painting. Both of us ____ good painters.,
A.are;are B.am;am C.ani;are D.is;is
7. Every' boy and every girl ____ to attend the evening party.
A.wish B.wishes C.is like D.like
8. Over 80 percent of the population of China ____ peasants.
A.was B.is C. would be D.are
9. The population of China ____ larger than that of .any other country in the world.
A.is B.are C.has D.have
10. Every means ____ tried but without any result.
A. have been B.is to be C.are to be D. has been
11. Alice, together with two boys,____ for having broken the rule.
A. was punished B. punished C. were punished D. being punished
12. The League secretary and the monitor____ asked to attend the .meeting this afternoon.
A.is B.was C.are D.is being
13. The great writer and professor____.
A. is an old man B. are both old men
C. is an old man and a young man D. were two Chinese
14. There ____ a pen, two pencils and three books on the desk.
A.are B.is C.has D.have
15. A large number of students in our class____ girls.
A. are B. was C. is D. be
16. The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses ____ much if people leave things as they are.
A. doesn' t change B.don't change C.change D.changed
17. The Arabian Nights ____ well known to the English.
A. is B. are C. was D. were
18. Chairman Mao' s works ____ published.
A. has been B.have been C.was D.is
19. A chemical works____ built there.
A. is to being B.have been C. were to D.has been
20. The Olympic Games ____ held every ____ years.
A.is;four B.are;four C.is;five D.are;five
21 .The United States of America one of the most developed countries in the world.
A.is B.are C.was D.were
22.He is the only one of die students who ____ elected.
A. are B.have C.has D.is
23.Theis is one of the most interesting questions that ____ asked.
A.have B.has C. have been D.has been
24.Many a man ____ come to help us.
A.have B.has C.is D.are
25.”All____ present and all____ going on well,“ our monitor said.
A.is;is B.are;are C.are;is D.is;are
26. The police ____ the murderer everywhere when he suddenly appeared in a theatre.
A. is searching for B. were searching for
C. are searching for D. were searching
27.Your trousers____ dirty.You must have____ washed.
A.is;il B.are;it C.are;them D.is;them
28.This pair of trouseis ____ too long for him.
A.is B.be C.are D.were
29. One and a half bananas ____ left on the table.
A.is B.are C.has D.have
30. Eight times eight ____ sixty - four.
A.is B.are C.get D.equal
31 .Ten minutes____ an hour when one is waiting for a phone call.
A.seems B.seem C.seemed D.seemes
32.____of the money____ nm out.
A. Three-fifth; has B. Three-fifth; has been
C. Three-fifths; has D. Three-fifths; have
33. The whole class ____ the teacher attentively.
A. are listening to B. is listening to
C.are listening D. is listening
34.1 have finished a large part of the book, the rest of which___ more difficult.
A.is B.are C.was D.were
35. Between the two rows of trees ____ the teaching building.
A.stand B.stands C. standing D.are
36. Large quantities of water ____ for irrigation.
A. is needed B. has -needed C. are needed D. need
37. That they were wrong in these matters ____ now clear to us all.
A. is B.was C.are D.all
38.What we need____ good textbooks.
A.is B.are C.have D.has
39. What you said just now____ the matter we are discussing.
A.have something to at B. has something to do with
C.had something to do with D.has been something to do with
40. More than one member ____ against the plan.
A. is B.are C.has D.have
41. When and where to build the new factory ____ yet.
A. has not decided B. is not decided
C. are not decided D. have not decided
42. Half of the fruit ____ bad.
A. are B. has C. is D. have
43. ____ either of your parents come to see you recently?
A. Have B. Had C. Has D. Is
44. Mathematics ____ the language of science.
A. are B. are going to be C. is D. is to be
45. My family ____ small.
A. is B. were C. are D. makes
46. The following ____ some other examples.
A. are B. is C. was D. were
47. They both have some friends; but his ____ more active.
A. is B. will be C. was D. are
48. Both rice and wheat ____ grown in that country.
A. is B. are C. was D. has
49. Early to bed and early to rise ____ a good habit.
A. are B. is C. were D. was
50. To play basketball and to go swimming ____ useful for character-training.
A. was B. is C. are D. were
51. Either he or I ____ to attend the mass meeting this evening.
A. is B. am C. are D. be
52. ____ either he or I to attend the mass meeting this evening.
A. is B. am C. are D. be
53. An iron and steel works, with some satellite factories, ____ to be built here.
A. are B. were C. is D. will
54. She as well as her brother ____ a League member.
A. are B. were C. will D. is
55. His family ____ a big one. Now the family ____ watching TV.
A. is, are B. are, is C. is, is D. are, are
56. It is I who ____ going to attend the meeting tomorrow.
A. is B. am C. are D. be
57. More than 60% of the students ____ the countryside.
A. is B. are C. is from D. are from
58. Many a man ____ the novel.
A. has read B. have read C. is read D. are read
59. Tom is the only one of the students who ____ going to swim this afternoon.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
60. Here ____ a pen, a few pencils and some paper for you.
A. are B. is C. was D. were
1~5 AAACA 6~10 CBDAD 11~15 ACABA 16~20 AABDB 21~25 ADCBC
26~30 BCAAA 31~35 ACAAB 36~40 CABBA 41~45 BCCCA 46~50 ADBBC
51~55 BACDA 56~60 BDAAB
Light travels faster than sound. 光比声传播速度快。（说明事实）
The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。（说明看法）
a. 一般疑问句（General Questions）：
Can you finish the work in time? 你能按时完成工作吗？
Where do you live? 你住那儿？
c. 选择疑问句（Alternative Questions）：
Do you want tea or coffee? 你是要茶还是要咖啡？
He doesn't know her, does he? 他不认识她，对不对？
Don't be nervous! 别紧张！
What good news it is! 多好的消息啊！
She is fond of collecting stamps. 她喜欢集邮。
The food was good, but he had little appetite. 食物很精美，但他却没什么胃口。
The film had begun when we got to the cinema. 我们到达电影院的时候，电影已经开演了。
（三）基本句型（Basic Sentence Patterns）：英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的：
1) 主 + 动（SV）例如：I work. 我工作。
2）主 + 动 + 表（SVP）例如：John is busy. 约翰忙。
3）主 + 动 + 宾（SVO）例如：She studies English. 她学英语。
4）主 + 动 + 宾 + 补（SVOC）例如：Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。
5）主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾（SVOiOd）例如：My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。
Take this seat. 坐这儿。
Do be careful. 务必小心。
Don't move. 不准动。
Don't be late. 不要迟到。
a. Let's 包括说话者。例如：
Let's have another try, shall we / shan't we? = Shall we have another try? 我们再试一次，如何？
b. Let us 不包括说话者。例如：
Let us have another try，will you / won't you? = Will you please let us have another try? 你让我们再试一次，好吗？
Let's not talk of that matter. 不要谈这件事。
Let us not talk of that matter. 你不要让我们谈这件事。
感叹句通常有what, how引导，表示赞美、惊叹、喜悦、等感情。what修饰名词，how 修饰形容词，副词或动词，感叹句结构主要有以下几种：
How +形容词+ a +名词+ 陈述语序。例如：How clever a boy he is! 他是多聪明的孩子！
How+形容词或副词+陈述语序。例如：How lovely the baby is! 小毛头真可爱！
What +名词+陈述语序。例如：What noise they are making! 他们真吵！
What +a+形容词+名词+陈述语序。例如：What a clever boy he is! 他是多聪明的孩子！
What+ 形容词+复数名词+陈述语序。例如：What wonderful ideas （we have）! 我们的主意真棒！
What+ 形容词+不可数名词+陈述语序。例如：What cold weather it is! 多冷的天！
What a clever boy he is!的省略形式为：What a clever boy!
1）___ food you've cooked!
A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice
答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词，副词；what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词，因此A，B 排除。C的 How + adj. 后面不能再加名词，因此只有D正确，其句型为What + adj. +n. （不可数）。
2）___terrible weather we've been having these days!
A. What B. What a C. How D. How a
答案A. weather为不可数名词，B，D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只有A，符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。
3） --- _____ I had!
--- You really suffered a lot.
A. What a time B. What time C. How a time D. how time
1：What + n.+主谓部分
2：How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种，但省略了bad，相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。
常用的强调句结构是it 引导的句子，结构为It is（was）+ 被强调部分+ that （who） + 句子的其余部分。此结构强调的成分限于主语，宾语和状语。例如：
It is from the sun that we get light and heat. 我们是从太阳那儿获取光和热。
It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. 知道读了你的信，我才知道实际情形。
1）It was last night ___ I see the comet.
A. the time B. when C. that D. which
答案C. 强调句的结构是： It +be +强调部分 + that （who））+ 主谓句。 强调句的连词只有两个，that和who。当强调的部分是人，且为句子的主语时，才用 ”who“，其余用that。再如：原句：My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
强调主语： It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.
强调宾语： It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening.
强调时间： It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. （注意不用when）
强调地点： It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.
2）It is ten years ___ Miss Green returned to Canada.
A. that B. when C. since D. as
答案C. 考点是连词用法。本题易误选为A. that. 其实本句不是强调句。若是，去掉It be… that还应是一个完整的句子。而本句去掉 'It is…that'，只剩下ten years Miss Green returned to Canada. 不成句。因此本句不是强调句。
句子的强调句还可以用助动词do （did，does） 强调谓语。例如：
She does like this horse. 她的确喜欢这匹马。
Please do take care of yourself. 千万保重。
1） 陈述部分的主语是I，疑问部分要用 aren't I。例如：
I'm as tall as your sister, aren't I? 我跟你姐一样高，对吗？
2） 陈述部分的谓语是wish，疑问部分要用may +主语。例如：
I wish to have a word with you, may I? 我想与你说句话，行吗？
3） 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时，疑问部分用肯定含义。例如：Some plants never blown （开花）, do they ? 有些植物从不开花，对吗？
4） 含有ought to 的反意疑问句，陈述部分是肯定的，疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。例如：
He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he? 他应该知道该做什么，对吗？
5） 陈述部分有have to +v. （had to + v.），疑问部分常用don't +主语（didn't +主语）。例如：
We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we? 我们要在明天早上八点到达那儿，是吗？
6） 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时，疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。例如：
He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he? 他以前常在那儿拍照，是吗？
7） 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you? 例如：
You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you? 你最好自己去读，好吗？
8） 陈述部分有would rather +v.，疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。例如：
He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he? 他宁可读十遍也不愿意背诵，是吗？
9） 陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。例如：
You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you? 你想和我们一块去，对吗？
10） 陈述部分有must 的疑问句，疑问部分根据实际情况而定。例如：
He must be a doctor, isn't he? 他肯定是医生，是吗？
You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you? 你一定读过三年英语，对吗？
He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he? 他肯定是在昨天完成任务的，是吗？
11） 感叹句中，疑问部分用be +主语。例如：
What colors, aren't they? 多漂亮的颜色，是吗？
12） 陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时，疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。
Neither you nor I am engineer, are we? 你不是工程师，我也不是，对吗？
13） 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it。例如：
Everything is ready, isn't it? 一切就绪，是吗？
Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?
He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he? 他说他想去日本看看，他是那样说的吗？
c. 陈述部分主句为第一人称，谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的定语从句，疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。例如：
I don't think he is bright, is he? 我认为他并不聪明，是吗？
We believe she can do it better, can't she? 我们相信她能做得更好，她能吗？
15） 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等，疑问部分常用复数they，有时也用单数he。例如：
Everyone knows the answer, don't they? （does he?） 人人都知道答案，是这样吧？
Nobody knows about it, do they? （does he?） 没人知道这件事，是吧？
16） 带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句，疑问部分常用 need （dare ） +主语。例如：
We need not do it again, need we ? 我们不必重做一遍，是吗？
He dare not say so, dare he? 他不敢这样说，是吗？
当dare, need 为实义动词时，疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。例如：
She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she? 她不敢独自回家，是吗？
17） 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句，疑问部分用will you。例如：
Don't do that again, will you? 别再这样做，好吗？
Go with me, will you / won't you ? 跟我走吧，好吗？
注意：Let's 开头的祈使句，后用shall we?
Let us 开头的祈使句，后用will you? 例如：
Let's go and listen to the music, shall we? 一起去听音乐，好吗？
Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ? 你让我们在阅览室等你，好吗？
18） 陈述部分是”there be“结构的，疑问部分用there省略主语代词。例如：
There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? 你的表有问题，对不对？
There will not be any trouble, will there? 不会有麻烦吧，是吗？
It is impossible, isn't it? 这不可能，是吗？
He is not unkind to his classmates, is he? 他不会对他同学使坏，是吗？
He must be there now, isn't he? 他现在肯定在那儿，是吧？
It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it? 明天肯定要下雨，是吗？
1. You’d rather watch TV this evening, ______?
a. isn’t it b. hadn’t you c. wouldn’t you d. won’t you
2. I suppose you’re not going today, ______?
a. are you b. do you c. don’t you d. aren’t you
3. I wish to shake hands with you, ______?
a. shall b. may I c. do I d. will I
4. Three hours ought to be enough time, ______?
a. oughtn’t three hours b. didn’t they c. shouldn’t it d. shouldn’t three hours
5. They have to study a lot, ______?
a. don’t they b. haven’t they c. did they d. hadn’t they
6. When the car crashed, your brother escaped being hurt, ______ ?
a. didn’t he b. did he c. did it d. didn’t it
7. I'm sure dirty, ______?
a. am I b. isn’t I c. aren’t I d. am not I
8. You seem to be dissatisfied with your present post. I don’t think you judged your ability objectively when you applied for it, ______ you?
a. do b. did c. don’t d. didn’t
9. That’s the sort of the book you want, ______?
a. is it d. isn’t that c. is that d. isn’t it
10.All these dictionaries are a great help to you, ______?
a. are they b. aren’t they
c. are all these dictionaries d. aren’t all these dictionaries
11.The movie that we saw last week was quite interesting, ______?
a. wasn’t it b. was it c. didn’t we d. weren’t we
12.Tom has been writing letters all afternoon, but he should have finished them by now, ______?
a. hasn’t he b. has he c. shouldn’t he d. didn’t you
13.David told me that you would take a trip to America, ______?
a. would you b. wouldn’t you c. did you d. didn’t you
14.There appeared to be no better way, _______?
a. was there b. were there c. did there d. didn’t there
15.You has some trouble finding where I live, ______?
a. didn’t you b. hadn’t you c. do I d. don’t I
16.He has his hair cut every month, ______?
a. has he b. hasn’t he c. does he d. doesn’t he
17.Your friend needs to come earlier, ______?
a. does he b. doesn’t he c. need he d. needn’t he
18.The little boy dare not go to church, ______?
a. dare he b. daren’t he c. does he d. doesn’t he
19.Susan’d have worked abroad if she’d had the chance, ______?
a. has she b. hadn’t she c. would she d. wouldn’t she
20.Everyone’s having a good time, ______?
a. is he b. isn’t everyone c. does he d. aren’t they
21.Any one can join the club, ______?
a. can any one b. can’t any one c. can’t they d. can they
22.Tell me how to operate the electronic computer, ______?
a. will you b. shan’t you c. do you d. don’t you
23.Magaret scarcely comes to visit you on Christmas Day, ______?
a. doesn’t she b. does she c. do you d. don’t you
24.Let’s listen to the radio program that the teacher mentioned, ______?
a. do we b. don’t we c. shall we d. shan’t we
25.You think you’re funny, ______?
a. didn’t you b. are you c. don’t you d. do you
26.Janet used to take part in labor in that village, ______?
a. used she b. did she c. didn’t she d. should she
27.What beautiful weather, ______?
a. is it b. isn’t it c. won’t it d. doesn’t it
28.He ought to go to Kwangchow by plane, ______?
a. should he b. shouldn’t he c. would he d. wouldn’t he
29.We never dared to ask him a question, ______?
a. did we b. didn’t we c. dared we d. daren’t we
30.Nobody will believe how difficult his work has been ______?
a. will he b. won’t nobody c. will they d. won’t they
31.You must have made the mistake, ______?
a. mustn’t you b. haven’t you c. didn’t you d. hadn’t you
32.Learning how to repair computers takes a long time, ______?
a. isn’t it b. aren’t they c. doesn’t it d. don’t they
33.Jack has coffee with breakfast, ______?
a. hasn’t Jack b. hasn’t he c. doesn’t Jack d. doesn’t he
34.They must have stayed at hotel last night, ______?
a. mustn’t they b. haven’t they c. didn’t they d. hadn’t they
35.There isn’t anything wrong with the radio, ______?
a. is there b. is it c. does it d. does there
36.You must be hungry, ______?
a. must you b. mustn’t you c. are you d. aren’t you
37.Let’s do the exercises by ourselves, ______?
a. shall we b. shan’t we c. will you d. will we
38.Her daughter had the carpets and curtains cleaned, ______?
a. had she b. hadn’t she c. didn’t she d. didn’t her daughter
39.The teacher had a talk with you, ______?
a. has you b. hadn’t she c. did she d. didn’t she
40.Something’ll have to be done about the air pollution, ______?
a. won’t it b. will it c. has it d. does it
1 C 19 D 37 A
2 A 20 D 38 C
3 B 21 C 39 D
4 C 22 A 40 A
5 A 23 B 41
6 A 24 C 42
7 C 25 D 43
8 B 26 C 44
9 D 27 B 45
10 B 28 B 46
11 A 29 A 47
12 C 30 C 48
13 B 31 B 49
14 D 32 C 50
15 A 33 D 51
16 D 34 C 52
17 B 35 A 53
18 A 36 D 54
The teacher made me go out of the classroom. 老师逼我走出教室。
--> I was made to go out of the classroom （by the teacher）.
We saw him play football on the playground. 我们看见他在草场踢球。
--> He was seen to play football on the playground.
2）情态动词+ be +过去分词，构成被动语态。例如：
Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry. 煤可以产生工农业需要的电。
12.1 let 的用法
They let the strange go.他们放陌生人走了。
---> The strange was let go.
2）当let 后宾补较长时，let 通常不用被动语态，而用allow或permit 代替。例如：
The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital. 那护士让我去探望住院的同学。
----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.
My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾。
Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。
12.3 表示”据说“或”相信" 的词组，基本上由believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand等组成。例如：
It is said that… 据说
It is reported that… 据报道
It is believed that… 大家相信
It is hoped that… 大家希望
It is well known that… 众所周知
It is thought that… 大家认为
It is suggested that… 据建议
It is taken granted that… 被视为当然
It has been decided that… 大家决定
It must be remember that… 务必记住的是
1） 不及物动词或不及物动词短语，如appear, die disappear, end（vi. 结束）, fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread,
stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place等没有无被动语态。
例如：After the fire, very little remained of my house. 大火过后，我家烧得所剩无几。
比较：rise, fall, happen是不及物动词；raise, seat是及物动词。
（错） The price has been risen.
（对） The price has risen.
（错） The accident was happened last week.
（对） The accident happened last week.
（错） The price has raised.
（对） The price has been raised.
（错） Please seat.
（对） Please be seated.
2） 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语，如fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。例如：
This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只配这把锁。
Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你说的与我们听说的一致。
3） 系动词无被动语态，如appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn等。例如：It sounds good. 听上去不错。
4） 带同源宾语的及物动词如die/death, dream/dream， live/life等，以及反身代词，相互代词，不能用于被动语态。例如：
She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个恶梦。
（对） She likes to swim.
（错） To swim is liked by her.
1）wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等。例如：
The book sells well. 这本书销路好。
This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。
2）blame, let（出租）, remain, keep, rent, build等。例如：
I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了，我该受指责。
Much work remains. 还有许多活要干。
3） 在need, require, want, worth （形容词）, deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。例如：
The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. 门该修了。
This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
4）特殊结构：make sb. heard / understood （使别人能听见/理解自己）等。例如：
Explain it clearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些，让别人理解你的话。
12.6 被动形式表示主动意义，如 be determined, be pleased, be graduated （from）, be prepared （for）, be occupied （in）,
He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。
注意：表示同某人结婚，用marry sb. 或get married to sb.均可。例如：
He married a rich girl. 他与一个富妞结婚了。
He got married to a rich girl.
当 need, want, require, be worth后面接doing时，表示的是被动意义。例如：
Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。
The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。
The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday.
A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned
答案A. need （实意） +n /to do，need （情态）+ do，当为被动语态时，还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法，选A。如有to be cleaned 则也为正确答案。